September 26

Aquatherapy

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland flag icon
Reading time 5 minutes

Definition/Description

Hydrotherapy (Aquatherapy) is any activity performed in water to assist in rehabilitation and recovery from eg.hard training or serious injury.[1][2] It is a form of exercise in warm water and is a popular treatment for patients with neurologic and musculoskeletal conditions.[3] The goals of this therapy are muscle relaxation, improving joint motion and reducing pain.[4] This therapy is been used for thousands of years.

Physiotherapists are often involved in hydrotherapy in a rehabilitation setting. Client satisfaction and adherence to this form of exercise are often high. The therapeutic effects are often enhanced by the social setting of the sessions.

Hygiene and infection control needs to be closely monitored.

Physical properties of water

In common with other forms of matter, water has certain physical properties which include mass, weight, density, relative density, buoyancy, Hydrostatic pressure, surface tension, refraction and reflection.[5][6]

Of the physical laws of water that the physiotherapist should understand and apply when giving Aquatherapy, those of buoyancy and hydrostatic pressure are the most important. The lateral pressure exerted and the effect of buoyancy together will give the feeling of weightlessness.[5]

Buoyancy is the force experienced as an upthrust which acts in the opposite direction to the force of gravity. A body in water is therefore subjected to two opposing forces. When the weight of the floating body equals the weight of the liquid displaced, and the centres of buoyancy and gravity are in the same vertical line, the body is kept in stable equilibrium.[6] If the centres are not in the same vertical line the two forces acting on the body will cause it to roll over until it reaches a position of stable equilibrium.

[7] Hydrostatic pressure

The molecules of a fluid thrust upon each part of the surface area of an immersed body. Pascal’s law states that fluid pressure is exerted equally on all surface areas of an immersed body at rest at a given depth. Pressure increased with the density of the fluid and with its dept. This means that swelling will be reduced more easily if exercises are given well below the surface of the water where the increased pressure may be used.[6]

The hydrostatic pressure place on the outside of the body causes a decrease in Blood Pressure (BP) peripherally and an increase in the BP in and around the heart. This can cause potential problems for eg Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) and Coronary Artery Disease CAD) clients and needs to be taken into consideration. The greater the depth the greater the changes described above would be.[8]

Physiological Effects

The physiological effects of water therapy combine those brought by the hot water of the pool with those of the exercises. The extent of the effects varies with the temperature of the water, the length of the treatment and the type and severity of the exercise.[5]

The physiological effects of exercise in water are similar to those of exercise on dry land. The blood supply to the working muscles is increased, heat is evolved with each chemical change occurring during the contraction, and the muscles temperature rises. There is an increased metabolism in the muscles resulting in a greater demand for oxygen and increased production of carbon dioxide. These changes augment the similar changes brought about by the heat of the water, and both contribute towards the final effect. The range of joint movement is either maintained or increased, and muscle power increases.[6]

During the immersion, the physiological effects are similar to those brought about by any other form of heat but less localized. A rise in body temperature is inevitable because the body gains heat from the water and from all the contracting muscles performing the exercises. As the skin becomes heated the superficial blood vessels dilate and the peripheral blood supply is increased. The blood flowing through these vessels is heated and by convection, the temperature of the underlying structures rises.[6]

The relatively mild heat of the water reduces the sensitivity of sensory nerve endings and the muscle tone will diminish when the muscles are warmed by the blood passing through them.[6]

Therapeutic Effects

Relieve pain and muscle spasm [6]

To gain relaxation [6]

To maintain or increase the range of joint movement [5]

To re-educate paralyzed muscles [5]

To strengthen weak muscles and to develop their power and endurance. [6]

To encourage walking and other functional and recreational activities. [5]

To improve circulation ( trophic condition of the skin ) [6]

To give the patient encouragement and confidence in carrying out his exercises, thereby improving his morale. [6]

The warmth of water blocks nociception by acting on thermal receptors and mechanoreceptors, thus influencing spinal segmental mechanisms. [3]

Warm water stimulates blood flow positively, which leads to muscle relaxation [3] .

. the hydrostatic effect may relieve pain by reducing peripheral oedema and by dampening the sympathetic nervous system activity.[3]

Serious Contraindications Absolute Contraindications Cardiovascular disease

cardiopulmonary disease

Diabetic

Balance disorder

History of CVA, Epilepsy

Incontinence

Labyrinthitis

a cold

Influenza

Fever

skin conditions

Chemical allergies (Chlorine) Contagious diseases

Hepatitis

Tracheotomy

Urinary tract infection

Serious Epilepsy

Urinary incontinence

Open Wounds

Recently Surgery

Hydrophoby

Difference Between Aquatic Exercise and Balneotherapy

Balneotherapy is hydrotherapy but without exercise and is also called “Spa therapy”. It is frequently used in alternative medicine as a disease cure and is very popular for treatment of all types of arthritis.[3]

There are not many studies that describe the difference in therapeutic effects between aquatic exercise and balneotherapy without exercise. In the following review article, ‘Effectiveness of Aquatic Exercise and Balneotherapy’, results show that Aquatic exercise had a small significant effect on pain reduction, improvement of function, quality of life and mental health. Compared to balneotherapy, an exercise in water is more effective for the treatment of musculoskeletal diseases than passive immersion. There are no long-term effects, so to keep the disease stable, it is necessary to frequently participate in water exercises.

It is not clear what exactly the effect is of balneotherapy in musculoskeletal diseases because the studies involving this subject have poor methodological quality, which makes it difficult to determine the individual effect in this therapy.[4]

[10] of Hydrotherapy Examples of Alternative Methodsof Hydrotherapy

The “Watsu Method”

The “Bad Ragaz Ring Method”

The “Feldenkrais Method

The “Halliwick Method”

The “Burdenko Method”

Resources

Also called “water Shiatsu”, is a combination of Aquatherapy and Shiatsu. Watsu is based on stretching the body in the supportive, relaxing medium of warm water. Beside the physical aspect, also the mental aspect has a great importance during this therapy. The Watsu method has a general relaxation and calming effect that soothes the muscle tension and stimulates all of the body systems and organs by nourishing the energy flow.This is an aquatic treatment approach based on proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation.This method promotes teaching individuals about the quality of their movements and how to move effortlessly with ease and efficiency.This method takes a holistic approach using Aquatherapy as a learning activity for all people, particularly those with physical or learning difficulties, to be confident to move independently and become a part of a group setting involving water activities.A method of Aquatherapy designed to address the 6 precepts of fitness: strength; flexibility; balance; co-ordination, endurance and speed. It is promoted as a great way to recover from injury or surgery.

https://www.hydroworx.com/blog/how-to-implement-aquatic-therapy-in-your-clinic/

http://www.healthtranslations.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcht.nsf/PresentDetail?Open&s=Hydrotherapy_exercise_cue_cards

Comments

Leave your questions here

To write a comment you must
or
Services
Category filter
Concern filter
Type filter
Sort
 
All categories
Art Therapy
$50 USD
Artist Teacher Workshop Or Tutoring

“Life Force” guiding our history, our body and spirits. Self portrait art, life drawing from the live model, gesture, and plein air painting. And extended cont…

Bryan Prillwitz
United States of America flag icon
Tarot Reading
$100 USD
Timeline Reading

EGYPTIAN TAROT READINGS using unique methods developed by Nelise Carbonare, a Brazilian healer with more than 40 years of experience in tarot consultations, as…

Nelise Carbonare
United States of America flag icon
Tarot Reading
$120 USD
THE SYNERGY OF THE PYRAMID

THE SYNERGY OF THE PYRAMID focuses on a specific relationship: One side for the consultant and one for their partner. (the partner does not need to be present …

Nelise Carbonare
United States of America flag icon
Tarot Reading
$10 USD
Pick one card

Many questions can be answer with just one Arcane.

Do you want to try?

Nelise Carbonare
United States of America flag icon
Personal Development Coaching
$50 USD
Spiritual Coaching - Removing Energy Blocks - Expansion

> “Who looks outside dreams. Who looks inside awakens.” Jung

Spiritual coaching is about moving you into a profound state of empowerment and involution m…

Kimla Rose (Kim Desrosiers)
United States of America flag icon
Life Coaching
$10 USD
Life Purpose and Soul Wisdom

What is your deeper truth, your deeper knowing, your MOJO, your deepest desires, those feelings that you can’t explain but that are so pure and so clear…or may…

Anna Beale
United States of America flag icon
Wellness Coaching
$10 USD
Your Missing Manual for Health & Life!

Are you constantly reading books, blogs and listening to podcasts trying to figure out what to do to be healthy?

With so much conflicting information out ther…

Pamela Malo
United States of America flag icon
Nutritional Therapy
$150 USD
Nutritional Therapy Consultation

Hi my name is Aria and I am the founder of Heal with Nutrition. I am a registered Nutritional Therapist and a Naturopath who has a passion on Nutrition and Hea…

Aria Alexandrou
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland flag icon
Tarot Reading
$10 USD
THOTH AND HERMETIC DECKS READING

With a deep knowledge of hermeticism and being introduced to the kabbalah tradition of the emanation process from the tree of life, I provide a deep insight co…

James Marchiori
Ireland flag icon
Personal Development Coaching
$55 USD
The Bridge to Your Desired Life

This is were you get real help with your struggles and life challenges. As life gets harder to cope with, we tend to look for external ways to get through. And…

Mina Mikhail
United States of America flag icon
Naturopathy
$10 USD
Intake Consult

short introduction consult to Integrative Medicine

Femke Neervoort
Netherlands flag icon
Career Coaching
$300 USD
Reset Coaching and Mentoring Programme

12 weeks of bi-weekly 90 minutes 1:1 Coaching and Mentoring. Total cost USD1800 (6x90minutes career coaching and mentoring session)

Are you returning to work …

Carla Martins
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland flag icon
Personal Development Coaching
$120 USD
Spiritual Life Coach Session-Personalized Session

Personalized Sessions

Because Everyone Is Unique

Client-centered sessions based on the area of focus requested by the client.

Each session is a LIVE Sessio…

Deborah Lucero
United States of America flag icon
Reiki
$55 USD
Guidance, Inspiration & Healing

This type of session is a favorite among many of my clients, as it is often times one of the smoothest way to address a challenge to reach a happier and health…

Mina Mikhail
United States of America flag icon
Mediumism
$10 USD
Psychic Readings

I specialize in love, past present future, future, past life, general, tarot, dream interpretation, specific, social, and career readings! Book today for clari…

Holly
United States of America flag icon
Life Coaching
$399 USD
1-on-1 Coaching

The journey started with our discovery call, and You decided: ” I’m ready! Let’s do this!”.

We will engage in 1-on-1 coaching sessions for 90 minutes. In this…

Carla Martins
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland flag icon
Ascension
$88 USD
Ascension Mentor Support

In this session, we come together with similar to a healing session but face to face.

We talk about what issues you are facing at the moment and we delve deep…

Claire C.
Australia flag icon
Spiritual Healing
$177 USD
Energy Healing

I am honored to assist you with intuitive channeled energy healings that support and nurture you on a physical level as well soul and energetic level, each ses…

Claire C.
Australia flag icon
Reiki
$375 USD
Usui Reiki 1st Degree Course

FIRST DEGREE COURSE - The ultimate Reiki course.

Have you ever wondered if you can heal? Have you felt a burning desire to help others? Then you’ve come to th…

Step Into Your Light - Christina Moore
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland flag icon
Life Coaching
$10 USD
Hand Analysis - Startup Session

What does a hand analysis do for me? ​

You will understand yourself and your life purpose. ​You will understand the roots of your triggers and reactionary be…

Brent Bruning, Master Hand Analyst
Switzerland flag icon
Shamanism
$10 USD
Sample Akashic Records Reading for Your Burning Issue

I connect to your Akashic Records and listen to what your guides want to bring to your conscoius attention at this time. Perhaps, it is an insight into why you…

Olga Aydınoğlu
Turkey flag icon
Shamanic Healing
$300 USD
Shamanic Healing Art

What is Shamanic Healing Art?

It is a physical artwork (usually a pastel drawing) I make for you based on the outcome of our online session. This artwork will…

Olga Aydınoğlu
Turkey flag icon
Shamanic Healing
$70 USD
Heal to say "No"

A limits and boundaries shamanic healing session to help you heal relevant wounds and traumas from this and/or other lifetimes, let go of false beliefs, judgem…

Olga Aydınoğlu
Turkey flag icon
Shamanic Healing
$70 USD
Writer's Block Shamanic Healing Session

Before the Session

I do my pre-meditation to find out the main reasons for your writer’s block. (This happens psychically, where I generally just need your na…

Olga Aydınoğlu
5
Turkey flag icon