Being overweight at some point causes many endocrine diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Fatty tissue in the body is mostly represented by white fat cells, and if a person puts on weight, their amount does not rise, they just grow in volume.
White fat cells have endocrine activity, they produce many active substances that are involved in metabolic processes. With an excess, almost all of them are involved in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. The most dangerous hormone in adipose tissue is leptin, which is involved in the regulation of hunger and weight gain. All patients with severe obesity suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory systems and some chronic ailments.
Dieting does not always lead to the expected outcome. Sometimes the degree of obesity is so high that the risk of developing concomitant diseases increases with every kilogram gained. The stomach turns its owner into a hostage, living with tens of extra pounds. When excess weight becomes a real threat to life, and diet and sports do not help, obesity has to be dealt with in radical ways.
Bariatrics is a branch of medicine that studies and treats obesity and its causes. Being overweight is the cause of such diseases as diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea, bronchial asthma, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, heart, and other organs. Being overweight is often the cause of infertility in both women and men. In addition to health problems people often suffer from bad mood.
Bariatric surgery is a modern and effective way to deal with excess weight, which allows you to achieve significant weight loss, even in cases where all other methods have failed. At the same time, the risk of complications after bariatric surgery is not higher than after any other surgery on the abdominal organs.
Increasingly, bariatric surgery is helping obese people lose weight and improve their life. All bariatric surgeries have two goals: to reduce the amount of food eaten at one time by reducing the volume of the stomach and to reduce the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. Bariatrics offers several quick ways to lose weight:
- gastric banding
- gastric bypass
- biliopancreatic bypass
- sleeve gastrectomy
Surgical treatment of obesity is used according to indications developed by the International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders (IFSO).
- body mass index> 35 kg / m2
- the presence and progression of concomitant diseases against the background of obesity
- refractoriness to therapeutic methods of treatment
The operation is recommended for a very high level of obesity, when the excess weight in men exceeds 45 kg, in women - 35 kg. Bariatric surgeries are not done simply at the request of the patient, they are performed when conservative methods of treating obesity - diet, exercise, drug correction - are ineffective. Also, sleeve gastrectomy is recommended for those who cannot control their eating behavior, for those who are desperate because of fruitless attempts to lose weight, and in cases where physical activity is contraindicated for the patient.
Bariatric surgeries are not performed on underage patients, people with alcohol or drug addiction, mental illness - psychosis, severe depression. Other contraindications include body mass index less than 30, pregnancy, Cushing's disease, incurable hypothyroidism, gastric or esophageal ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease, acute ischemic heart disease, including 6 months before treatment.
Before the operation, it is necessary to take some tests, get advice from a therapist, endocrinologist, and psychiatrist.
The first day after the operation, the patient is in the intensive care unit, then he is transferred to the surgical department and when all body functions are normalized, he is discharged from the hospital. Meals begin on the third day after the operation 5-6 times a day, in small portions. Gradually, the patient will develop new eating habits - eating less will become the norm for him. They are allowed to get up on the second day after the operation. And in two weeks a person can go to work if his activity is not associated with heavy physical exercise - he will have to refrain from this for two months. But then physical activity is mandatory: walking at least three kilometers a day, swimming, cycling, or aerobics will help to overcome the difficulties of the recovery period more easily and quickly return to a full-fledged lifestyle.
A year after the operation, a person will smoothly lose up to 60-70% of excess weight, in rare cases it takes about 1.5 years. It is important that losing weight is irreversible - the weight will go away and will never return. This is the most important advantage of obesity surgery. In addition, along with being overweight, diseases associated with obesity will gradually disappear or significantly regress: type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, hyperlipidemia, arthritis, infertility.