In this article, we will tell you about the prospects for the development of computational neuromodulation. To begin with, let’s understand what neuromodulation is.
Neuromodulation is the latest technology in the field of neurosurgery, which is used in the treatment of diseases related to the nervous system. There are such classes of neuromodulation as internal and external.
Internal and external neuromodulation
The first class of neuromodulating signals occurs either in the neural substrate itself or in a remote location, but they are controlled only internally. Examples of such phenomena are glial modulation, co-transmission, and presynaptic techniques. The functions performed by internal neuromodulation are quite specific. In the second class, neuromodulating signals originate from the external region of the neural substrate. Damage to the neuromodulatory centre alters the quality of the function without disrupting it. Computational functions of external modulation are under development, but their global use is planned since they affect many functional areas.
1.1 External neuromodulation
The origin of this modulation depends on the parallel activity of functional systems external to the substrate. Most “neuromodulatory centres” release some neuroactive substances. These substances modify the synoptic and cellular properties of their targets. These include dopamine and norepinephrine.
Recently, a model of the cognition sequence in the hippocampal region was invented. It shows that the calculations depend on external modulation by GABAergic and cholinergic inputs from the septum.
1.2 Internal neuromodulation
Sometimes it is impossible to isolate a neuromodulatory phenomenon from the system it modulates. Internal neuromodulation is characterized by a network that is currently being studied. An example of the action of internal neuromodulation is the action of the DSI (serotonergic CPG neuron) and the afferent axon (SNAX1).
Soon, it is possible to imagine that internal and external neuromodulations will work together and each performs its own tasks, but since the neuromodulatory mechanisms in internal neuromodulation require complex calculations, their creation is still being investigated, while external neuromodulations are easily implemented by selecting the appropriate parameters and settings.