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Bethany Thomas

Yoga Therapy
About Bethany Thomas


54 years of practice
On Core Spirit since February 2021
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Bethany Thomas
Rune spreads: a tool that can help you improve your personal life

We live in a stressful world. We face a lot of emotional stress. We worry too often, we are afraid, we solve important issues, and other people's tasks and forget about ourselves, about our inner comfort. If you're feeling like you're stuck and need some guidance, rune spreads can help you in your healing journey.

But what are runes?

Runes are symbols that were previously used in the writing of the Scandinavian and Germanic people.

The value of runes in esotericism is extremely high. They are often used in various magical practices. These seemingly simple symbols contain the deep wisdom of the ancestors and great opportunities. With the help of runes, you can solve any problem.

With the help of Scandinavian runes, one can guess and predict, thereby using them as a tool for self-knowledge. You can conduct sessions in the form of meditations to resolve any problem that you have.

The magic of runes lies in switching consciousness: this is how they reveal new meanings, experiences, and emotions to a person. After rune spread sessions you change - and the world around you changes.

Can runes be used for predictions?

Yes, Scandinavian runes allow you to predict future events.

Such predictions can be seen as a piece of advice that helps in different life situations.

Regarding the prediction of fate: our soul comes to Earth for a certain personal experience. Each person has their own karmic tasks and certain situations from which they cannot escape. The best and only way out is to recognize these situations and go through them. They are our lessons, the lessons of our souls. But the way you go through them is up to you.

"You can't cheat fate and you can't fool it."

There is the 25th rune of the Futhark (Scandinavian alphabet) "Wyrd". One of its meanings is "fate is the essence of God, which is harmful to know." However, the Scandinavian runes can predict certain events in a person's life that are significant in his destiny without any harm.

What can runes do?

  • Diagnose the energetic background.
  • Protect mental health.
  • Determine the best solution to the problem.
  • Answer your questions.
  • Predict the near future.

The runic formula (a set of certain signs) selected for the task begins its work from the moment of its activation (energy launch), and results can be seen right away or after three months.

With the help of runes, you can ‘cleanse’. Cleansing, which can be carried out with the help of runes, allows you to remove any existing negatives in your energy.

Irreversible Runes

Irreversible signs give stable predictions. The fortuneteller will receive an accurate prediction, which in any case will come true.

List of irreversible runes:

  1. Rune of Odin
  2. Soul
  3. Isa
  4. Sign of the day
  5. Hagalaz
  6. Inguz
  7. Eyvaz
  8. Gebo
  9. Hyera

Irreversible signs are used for divination or protection. They store positive energy and protect from energy attacks.

Rune of Odin

This is the first sign, which is a symbol of purity. It refers to the most powerful deity Odin and has a double meaning, it speaks of the beginning and the end, which gives new opportunities. In divination for undertakings, it promises quick success, and change.


The meaning of rune is associated with the sun. It is the Symbol of all living things. It speaks of strength, integrity, power, and spiritual values. If the question asked of the runic set concerns personal qualities, Soulu points to the need to search for inner harmony. Its loss in a personal scenario speaks of the special sensitivity of the questioner. Sometimes it indicates that the path to the desired goal is much more important than the end result. Soulu is a reflection of the "I" of the inner child. Human fears are able to get out and destroy everything that is created. Soulu talks about the need for stagnation, which will test the personality for strength.


Isa symbolizes stability. A sign of winter, the natural completion of something, rest. The rune symbolizes stability. A person will be able to take a breath and prepare for a new battle. In a personal prediction, Isa turns into a Symbol of Retreat.
Rune advice: you need to take a break to consider further actions, otherwise the problem will hide in the details. The interpretation of the rune is associated with imperceptible growth and preparation for a period of action.


Dagaz personifies the bright side of human life, the absence of secrets, and changes within the personality. If you’ll get this rune, you will have to prepare for a sharp turn of fate. No area of ​​life should be left unattended. This rune calls for action.


Hagalaz has a negative meaning. It always promises a sudden change of plans, which will not allow you to complete things. The freedom received in return will be a burden and cause stress. Hagalaz warns that plans will soon be resumed. By showing patience, a person will be able to achieve more, then a change of circumstances will benefit.

Runes and love: how can they help?

With the help of runes, you can make a prediction of the partners' compatibility. The alignment will provide us with detailed information regarding how people will interact with one another on a physical, mental, and spiritual level. The runes will also reveal what this connection is about and what it will eventually result in.

The layout on the runes perfectly shows the “dark” corners of your relationship with your partner and explains why a person reacts to us in a certain way. Suddenly discovering unpleasant sides can put us in a state of shock, so you need to be extra careful with love rune spreads.

Here are some of the best love runes and their meaning:

Rune "Gebo"

Gebo is an auspicious rune that does not have an inverted meaning. A symbol of the union, the unity of opposites, harmonious partnership, the union of two equal people. The rune is able to make changes in existing relationships, and eliminate misunderstandings and conflicts. Gebo gives opportunities for mutual understanding, wisdom, kindness, and harmony. It implies a union of mutual exchange and support and does not tolerate selfishness and despotism.

Skill Rune - Laguz

The rune "Laguz" is a symbol of femininity. Laguz implies true, unconditional love and devotion, understanding without words, empathy and the ability to feel someone else's pain as your own. Laguz also provides the development of intuition and inner instinct. It is used in talismans as a symbol of a woman or devoted sincere love.

Rune "Tiwaz"

Tiwaz is a symbol of a man with a decisive character. In love magic - a symbol of a passionate and temperamental man. But in general, for the preparation of a runic talisman, this rune represents such traits of a male character as perseverance, determination, reliability, courage, and strong character.

Rune "Berkana"

Berkana is a symbol of mother and motherhood. Provides protection and patronage to the family, marriage, and home. Beneficial effect on the health of pregnant women and children.

Rune "Kenaz"

An amazing rune, thanks to which we know what the "flame of love" is, passion, temperament, inspiration, inspiration, the warmth of relationships, and home ... Thus, the Kenaz rune gives us exactly what unites people and makes hearts beat in unison. Rune Kenaz takes away from us what is so undesirable in a relationship - coldness, indifference, detachment.

In conclusion, we can say that Runes are a universal tool that is not tied to religion. Rune magic is allowed to be used by everyone and will help in a lot of different fields of life. If you feel like you want to try and get a rune spread, you’re in the right place. Our practitioners will help you with all the interpretations and answer all your questions!


Please feel free to share your feedback in the comments!

Bethany Thomas
Need to lose weight fast? Try these hardcore diets

People reevaluate their diets when they decide to lose weight. There are two options: lose weight quickly on one of the strict but effective diets, or balance nutrition and exercise to return weight to normal in the range of minus 2 - 6 pounds (1-2 kg) each week. Which do you prefer?
Those who want to see results within a few days, try quick weight loss methods.

What are the top hardcore diets, then?


You can lose up to 10 kg each week with this mono-diet. However, buckwheat porridge should be steamed rather than boiled. As a result, it loses some of its flavor yet still aids in weight loss.

  • Rinse the cereal first, then add hot water and wait for the grains to fully expand.
  • You have 12 hours to steam the porridge because it takes a long time. Evening is the ideal time to do it.
  • To buckwheat, add a little salt, some spices, and a tablespoon of soy sauce.
  • Eat the remaining cereal throughout the day, dividing it into 5 meals.

No later than five hours before bedtime, the final meal should be had. Have a glass of water 30 minutes before meals. Additionally, unsweetened green tea is an option. However, you should not misuse this diet, as doing so increases your risk of developing gastrointestinal tract disorders.

Diet of Ducan

This is a protein-based diet that nearly entirely forbids carbohydrates. Pierre Ducan ensured that by varying the menu, you could eat at all times. However, the Ducan diet is only appropriate for people who need to lose 10 kg and are willing to wait a month or longer for results. It is not suitable for everyone.

There are various steps involved in the switch to a diet low in carbohydrates. You start by giving up all carbohydrates and switching to protein. Vegetables and protein are then alternated to maintain weight. Then you can gradually add carbohydrates to your diet, but they shouldn't make up more than 10% of all the items.


Kefir mono-diet is among the most popular methods for quick weight loss. Planning a diet and a meal schedule is not difficult, but it is difficult to endure it. Overall, you should only consume 50 oz (1.5 liters) of kefir every day, especially if it is fatty. You can therefore drop up to 5 kg per week.
But you can only follow this diet for around three to five days before your body starts to feel exhausted.

Diet ladder

Using the "Ladder" approach, you can lose 3 to 8 kg in just 5 days. It is based on five nutritional stages, which correspond to the five days of the week:

  • Fasting and regular consumption of purified water on the day of cleansing. You can eat dairy products as a restorative.
  • Energy: Using honey, raisins, and other natural items, you must provide the body with glucose.
  • Constructing: at this stage, we consume protein.
  • Fiber, which satisfies and fills you up, is necessary for burning fat.

A program for rapid weight loss

In the short term, severe food restriction is effective. So before starting a kefir or buckwheat diet, be aware that the weight you've lost will likely come right back.

However, you can restructure your diet to lose weight and keep it steady, plus or minus 2 kg. You must eat in little doses five times a day rather than three times a day in order to do this. All high-calorie items must also be avoided, including desserts, fried and baked potatoes, fatty red meat, and sausages, as well as sodas, fast food breakfasts, alcohol, muffins, and other baked goods produced with white wheat flour.

Fresh fruits and vegetables, white meat and lean fish, and cereals other than white rice should form the foundation of a diet.
Keeping a food journal that includes all meals, even the smallest ones, is beneficial.
Additionally, you should determine your daily caloric needs based on your weight and lifestyle, deduct 300–500 units from that number, and then adhere to that specific caloric level.

A healthy rate of weight loss, say doctors, is 1.5 to 2 pounds (0.5 to 1 kg) each week. While losing weight more quickly stresses the body, losing 4 pounds (2 kg) per week can be done without harming the internal organs. It leaves a trail and causes gastrointestinal issues as well as endocrinological disorders.
Additionally, if you get carried away with tight diets, you could develop an eating disorder. Both excessive overeating and the fear of consuming dangerous foods are examples of how it can manifest.

So instead of starving yourself, physicians advise eating a balanced diet to ensure that your body gets all the nutrients it needs.

Bethany Thomas
Spiritual Healing for Narcissistic Personality Disorder

When a child is developing, they need their parents' acceptance the most. But what happens when they don’t receive this acceptance?


A pathological personality trait that includes egomania animosity, the implicit or explicit belief that everyone owes you something, self-centeredness, self-assurance in one's own superiority, condescending behavior toward others, the desire to draw attention, excessive attempts to draw attention, and the desire for admiration.

According to the mainstream psychiatric viewpoint, narcissism is a collection of coping strategies that narcissists learned as children to shield their egos from shame.

This idea contends that before the age of three, the child experienced abuse, neglect, and/or was not seen by the parents and was instead only regarded as an extension of the parent's egos.

The child's true self was destroyed by these abuses.

In order to cope, the child created a fake identity in which they were superior to other people.
This fictitious persona is grandiose, unique, entitled, consumed with delusions of success, power, brilliance, beauty, or perfect love needs excessive attention and is haughty, arrogant, and jealous of others. It is also exploitative and lacking in empathy.

What’s going on in their minds?

Narcissists are the center of their own universes.

They serve as the hub around which all else revolves. They are more unique, more entitled, more opulent, more gorgeous, and more deserving than others. Whether or not they possess and own everything, they ought to possess it all. The narcissist is vehemently jealous if anyone else possesses anything because that thing should also be theirs. The only one who matters is them. Others are here for the narcissist's use, enjoyment, and service.

Every desirable object in the narcissist's universe must belong to the narcissist, therefore if others have something the narcissist covets—whether it be a material or spiritual good—the narcissist must get it out of them, and if the thing cannot be acquired out of them, it must be destroyed.
The narcissist cannot have others own his property, thus once any "other" has been mined of its treasures and is no longer useful to him, it must be destroyed.

The "other" needs to be so completely ruined that either no one else wants it or it dies and is discarded.

Because he lacks empathy, the narcissist has no feelings regarding the anguish others endure while being destroyed.

At some point in their life, narcissists can realize:

"It appears that I, as a living person, do not live. I project some sort of false mask onto the world, and since this requires a lot of energy from me while I'm still living, it turns me into a zombie—a dead guy laying in a coffin who is half-dead, half-alive, or in some other state of suspended animation. Then, how can I be myself?”

There is occasionally a temptation to follow a misguided path or exhibit fake humility.

“If I had previously viewed myself as grandiose, I will now be a plain, simple person, and I'll go dig potatoes somewhere in the hamlet.”

And in this situation, it's crucial to avoid engaging in a conflict with oneself and to avoid trying to reinvent someone who is entirely unlike yourself.

Because a pathological narcissist can become a healthy narcissist in the Church, in the spiritual life, or in the therapy of psychological work on oneself, but he cannot change into anyone else at all.

But can narcissism be cured?

Narcissism can undoubtedly be changed or healed in a person.

Such people can benefit in such circumstances from anger management counseling, meditation, and the ability to control one's emotional reactions.

Spirituality and Narcissism: how are they connected?

Similar to religion, spirituality appears to be a secure area to invest in one's self-worth.
Spiritual achievements leave a lot of leeway for wishful thinking, making them vulnerable to self-enhancement desire.

That makes spiritual subjects a perfect domain for erroneous illusions about one's superiority because they are typically elusive to external objective standards.

One way that people could use spirituality is as a confidence builder.
It enables people to recognize their uniqueness.
Additionally, they can make pretty easy advancements in the spiritual realm.
This is due to the lack of objectively measurable results (in contrast to, for example, sports, academic success, or wealth accumulation).

Spiritual training, though, might draw persons who already feel superior.
Additionally, narcissists "may find particular attraction" in spiritual training's "deep study of one's personal beliefs and feelings."

Spiritual healing for a narcissistic personality disorder

  • Meditation

In its many forms, mindfulness meditation can help in overcoming the detrimental psychological effects of a relationship with a narcissist, being aware of our own narcissistic tendencies, and improving self-awareness and self-management.

  • Mindfulness

Can help with Challenging self-stories, Cultivating healthy confidence, Developing sympathetic joy to overcome envy and “I’m better than” thinking or acting, Enhancing self-awareness

  • Energy healing

Energy is what should be used in communication. Without saying a word, an energy healer is able to look inside a person's energy and restore balance. Without endangering the narcissist's view. Rebalancing the energy, raising the frequency, and spreading love are all necessary. When energy is healed and rebalanced, consciousness will spontaneously deepen (the true thing, not romantic love but global love/consciousness)

So, it is undoubtedly something that a person can change or heal.

The likelihood of that occurring will vary depending on each individual and their unique situation.

Bethany Thomas
Martial Arts Benefits for Women

Martial arts are developed systems of self-defense using specific techniques for each type of martial arts. The main goal of training is the spiritual improvement of those involved and the development of physical strength.

The time when women were only engaged in fitness, athletics and Pilates has already passed, and now martial arts is not an exclusively male sport.

Martial arts are an up-to-date and fun way to keep fit. Flexibility, good stretching, excellent coordination of movements and a load on all muscle groups are not all the advantages that such a fitness hobby can give you.

What are the Benefits of Martial Arts for Women?

  1. Physical Benefits

Martial arts for women is an ideal option to keep the muscles of the whole body in good shape and create the figure of your dreams. If you exercise systematically, then in a month your body will become toned, extra pounds will go away, coordination of movements, flexibility and dexterity will improve. It is worth noting that in one intense workout you can burn about 800 calories, which equates to 10 km. running. A good bonus is that in martial arts classes, you will also devote time to stretching and breathing exercises.

  1. Peace of mind and spiritual integrity

In martial arts training, in addition to physical development, great attention is also paid to deep philosophical teachings, which contribute to spiritual growth and inner harmony.

Martial arts are perfect for women who want to relieve stress and throw out negative emotions, clear their minds after a hard day.

And also you will be able to think more positively and look at the world with different eyes.

  1. Self-defense

Thanks to training, you will master the basic techniques of self-defense - as a result, you will gain a sense of security, because you will be confident in yourself and your abilities. The possibility of a sudden attack will no longer be as scary as before.

Considering women's martial arts as a future hobby, you need to pay close attention to the following points:

medical contraindications and health issues;
the nature of the battle;
consequences of training;
own preferences and interests.

The main goal of martial arts is to maintain harmony between strength and emotions. Classes do not imply a duel with an expression of uncontrolled aggression.

It is important to use the acquired knowledge and skills for self-defense or training, and not as a way of physical violence against other people.

It is necessary to choose a type of martial arts that is feasible for a woman. High physical exertion, with which she cannot cope, will bring the opposite result to recovery and correct correction of the figure.

It is important to pay attention to the desire to engage. If the option under consideration seems too traumatic and aggressive, then it is better to give preference to calm sports.

What are the best types of martial arts for women?

Wushu/Kung Fu

The wushu base is divided into two parts: a gymnastic complex and a combat one. In the first batch, all exercises are performed slowly and resemble a ritual dance. There are also sets of exercises that are performed at a fast pace. Here you'll get a good opportunity to demonstrate the potential of your body, its coherence and unity.

Wushu gymnastics gives a uniform load on all muscle groups, forming a harmonious figure. According to Chinese doctors, wushu burns calories no worse than aerobics, and this is even in the absence of fast movements! And as a bonus, you will get the ability to concentrate.


Aikido is a special defense system. It can be described as the Japanese analogue of wushu is a combination of smooth and fast. The main skill that you get from practicing aikido is the ability to evade a blow. Aikido does not create the illusion of "knowing how to fight". This martial art teaches you how to defend yourself.

The technique consists of defensive techniques that use the energy of the attacker. In addition, all aikido techniques must be beautiful in appearance, but at the same time guarantee protection.


Jiu-jitsu is one of the oldest Japanese martial arts, later improved by the Europeans. This type of martial arts is considered the progenitor of judo, aikido, and karate.

This type of wrestling is quite aggressive.


Literally translated from Japanese, "karate" means "empty hand". However, despite the "emptiness" in the hands of a fighter, this sport can protect no worse than a weapon. Hard contact karate is a dangerous fight that is still banned in some countries. In non-contact types of karate, strikes must be calculated accurately down to millimeters. This type of struggle is well suited for developing attention, the ability to concentrate, and for developing an accurate reaction.

Kickboxing, Thai boxing

If in the previous areas of martial arts, punches are minimized, then in kickboxing and Thai boxing there are plenty of them. At the same time, the legs are also not idle, so these types of martial arts have a great effect on the gluteal muscles. In addition, kicks form a good stretch.

Kickboxing and Muay Thai are usually recommended for active, aggressive women who need to throw out their energy.

​​Martial Arts is a wonderful way to find a new hobby and improve your health. Determination and desire will allow you to achieve big results, and psychological training will teach you how to deal with aggression and direct it in the right direction.

Bethany Thomas
Yoga Therapy For Better Sleep: A Complete Guide [2022]

Good sleep is crucial for the correct functioning of all body systems, good health and well-being in general.

Sleep problems occur for a variety of reasons, most often due to diseases or lifestyle habits.

We are constantly stressed throughout the day. Worries about work, personal life and all the related problems do not leave us even in the evening and in a dream. When the body is resting, the brain continues to think about various situations, which affects the quality of sleep and reduces performance. A sleepy and physically tense person cannot fully engage in work, physical or mental affairs.

This results in an unending circle: we don't work well because we can't rest well, and we can't rest well because we constantly think about problems at work. Crazy, right?

In addition, here are the leading causes of poor sleep:

  • Light

From a street lamp or TV in the bedroom, from the screen of a smartphone. The brain understands: if it's still light - you need to be awake, and as a result, biorhythms are disturbed, it becomes more and more difficult to return to a normal sleep pattern;

  • Unstable schedule

The body simply cannot adapt to falling asleep at different times, especially if the difference is significant;

  • Bed

If it serves as a workplace, a dining room, part of the auditorium and a library at the same time, then it ceases to be perceived as a place to sleep. Add to this an uncomfortable mattress and pillow, and sleep problems are guaranteed;

  • Noise

The sounds of traffic under the windows, the conversations of neighbors or household members do not at all contribute to normal falling asleep.

Not everyone manages to get enough sleep, and many simply do not know how to cope with insomnia. Often medications are used that only worsen the situation. Meanwhile, there is a much safer and more effective way - Yoga Therapy for better sleep.

So, how can Yoga help you?

Quite often there are doubts: is it possible to do yoga before going to bed? After all, physical activity before a night's rest is not recommended, they invigorate and interfere with normal sleep.

But there is a whole complex of evening asanas that have a beneficial effect on the nervous system, activate the blood supply to brain cells, and normalize all the processes occurring in it. The value of Yoga Therapy for better sleep is about the same as that of morning exercises to get a boost of energy for the whole day. Exercise relaxes the mind and body, prepares the body for a deep rest, helps it to restore reserves during sleep.
Evening yoga differs from the usual one because all yoga asanas before going to bed are aimed at calming the central nervous system after a busy day and help to disconnect from daytime stresses.

Rules for effective yoga before bed:

To get the maximum effect from yoga for sleep, you need to follow a few simple rules:

  • Choose the right time

The best time will be between 10 and 11 PM (around this time the sleep hormone begins to be produced);

  • Create a suitable environment

Without distracting extraneous sounds (you can turn on calm music);

  • Do not start the lesson earlier than an hour after dinner

Ideally - after 2-3 hours

  • Ventilate the room

High levels of carbon dioxide can backfire

What are the best asanas for Yoga Therapy?

Properly selected asanas help to establish biorhythms in the body, restore cells, and this slows down the aging of the body.

  1. Padmasana (lotus position)

You need to close your eyes, focus on your breathing for a few minutes;

  1. Ardha matsyendrasana (twisting)

The easiest way to perform from the lotus position. The right leg must be brought behind the left knee, turning the body to the right side. The left-hand rests on the right leg, the head turns behind the right hand. The task is to expand the body as much as possible;

  1. Sukhasana (forward bend)

Performed from a sitting position with crossed legs. You need to strive to press your hands to the floor to the elbows;

  1. Balasana (child's pose)

Relieves tension in the body and calms the mind. From a sitting position on your knees, you need to lean forward, pressing your outstretched arms and forehead to the floor;

  1. Halasana (plow pose)

Stimulates blood flow. It is better to put something soft under the shoulders. Lying on your back, you need to make a “birch tree”, gradually lowering your legs behind your head. Hands are pressed to the floor or support the back;

  1. Apanasana (knees to chest)

The exercise relieves tension from the muscles of the back, which is under serious stress during the day. Lying on your back, one knee should be brought to the stomach, linger in this position, then change the leg;

  1. Supta matsyendrasana (lying twist)

Lying on your back, arms extended to the sides, you need to bend your knees and pull them to your chest. Then turn both legs to the left, without taking your hands and head off the floor. The head turns to the right so that you can see the right hand. This posture helps to relax the spine, stretch the muscles and even improve digestion.

  1. Savasana (the pose of a corpse)

It literally starts the sleep mode in the body. The asana is very simple: you need to lie on your back, stretch your arms along the body, relax and imagine that with each exhalation one disturbing or unpleasant thought leaves.

Still not sure if Yoga is worth it?

Here are the top 5 reasons to prove you that it is:

  1. Better benefits from the practice. When we practice yoga in the morning, then we usually spend energy somewhere outside: for work, for relatives, for pets. But if you work out right before going to bed and go to bed, then all the positive energy generated will go exclusively to you.
  2. Improves your sleep quality. Yoga has a wonderfully calming effect that comes in handy at night. You will quickly fall asleep soundly, you will not wake up in the middle of the night or see incomprehensible nightmares. And in the morning you will have a fresh and cheerful look!
  3. Reduces stress. In fact, you will relieve yourself of stress, both mental and physical. You will no longer be overcome by annoying thoughts before going to bed and pain from tension in the back, legs and neck. This is very useful because stress tends to accumulate, develop into a chronic and negatively affect health. With evening yoga, you will prevent such a development of a scenario.
  4. Stops you from beating yourself up. Many people have a habit of criticizing themselves before going to bed, winding up, worrying and thinking about what others thought of them during the day. So after yoga, you simply will not have extra energy for this, you will use all of it for breathing and asanas. In addition, after practice, you will have such a peaceful state that you will not need a charge of negative emotions.
  5. Fall asleep in a good mood. How we start the day depends on the state in which we laid down yesterday. Each of us falling asleep should not be spontaneous, we should, as it were, program ourselves that tomorrow will be a wonderful day, then we will wake up in a great mood and the day will really be wonderful!

Yoga therapy before bed will relieve unnecessary worries and give you the opportunity to sleep well. With constant practice, you will learn to think positively, let go of events that you cannot influence, and become more productive and cheerful.

Bethany Thomas
Brain immortality: possibility or a myth?

Uploading the mind into a computer is one of the likely paths to human immortality.

Despite scientific breakthroughs every year, the human brain is still poorly understood. The idea of transferring consciousness from the brain to the new artificial body may seem out of reach, but it is feasible.

In what part of the brain is consciousness located and how can it be read and loaded into a computer? Everything is difficult both to understand and study, but the successful implementation of this process is possible under three basic assumptions:

  • Physicalism. Simply put, it is a representation of the same consciousness in the form of the structure and biochemistry of the brain in which it is contained.

  • Scalability. It implies a complete understanding of the brain and the ability to simulate all processes occurring in it in electronic form.

  • The theory of computability. Any simulation on a computer is represented as a program code. The theory of computability allows you to create correct software that allows virtual consciousness to work like the original.

Even if you use pictures to show everything in your brain, to simulate the processes that happen in it, you also need to understand the laws and rules of its work. Simulation should be dynamic, just like the function of the brain, from one millisecond to the next, during which it will develop, think, see and act. So far, no one knows whether this can be done or whether technology can generate a virtual copy of us. The peculiarity of consciousness is that it consists not only of those things that are known to us - it also includes unknown aspects.

It is currently unclear if the use of "mind uploading" will be possible, but scientists are studying the potential ethical implications of the technology. In their opinion, if someone thinks that "complete brain emulation" is only a matter of time, it is worth thinking about the moral rights of the new brain image: who will be able to download our consciousness into the virtual world? What rights will the virtual consciousness have? What are the possible abuses of this technology?

Researchers conduct computer simulations of neural networks, which are systems that mimic brain activity.

They believe that the creation of more complex artificial networks should probably be done gradually. Before anyone attempts to simulate the entire human brain, scientists are likely to simulate the animal brain first. Some scientists believe that virtual laboratory animals can replace real laboratory animals in scientific and medical research.

And although mind uploading is theoretically possible, for its practical implementation, it will take more than one hundred years to develop technology and scientific understanding.

Bethany Thomas
Medicine of the Future: Virtual Rehabilitation

Currently, VR is considered as a promising method for the formation of new motor opportunities with the integration of virtual limbs into the patient's body scheme, as well as cognitive and multisensory stimulation of mental processes. The definition of virtual rehabilitation combines all methods of treatment (physical, cognitive, psychological, and occupational therapy) that are based in VR or include elements of VR, augmented reality, or computer technology in their structure.

Virtual rehabilitation gives a person a sense of presence in an environment that is different from the one in which they find themselves, and which allows them to interact with this environment. Distortion of information from the environment is the impact on the human sense organs with the help of special devices that change the sensory flow from the environment (augmented reality). When exposed to a stimulus from the environment, a response occurs, unconditioned or conditioned. Environmental stimuli are perceived by the senses and, accordingly, are divided into visual, auditory, vestibular, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, and proprioceptive. Unconditional responses of the body can be:

  1. physiological (increased heart rate, increased sweating, changes in blood pressure and body temperature, changes in the electrical activity of the brain, skin-galvanic potentials, etc.)
  2. emotional - positive (joy, pleasure, interest, etc.) and negative (guardian, disgust, indignation, etc.).

Conditioned responses include behavioral ones, which include both simple voluntary movements mediated by a task, and complex multistage behavioral acts with the analysis of sensory information, comparing it with previous experience, building an action program, making decisions, performing actions, analyzing the results of these actions.

When systematizing computer programs to rehabilitation, four main categories can be distinguished:

  1. Simulating everyday activities to perform some action from the patient's usual life (for example, cooking, cleaning, shopping, etc.), which can be easily transferred into real practice.
  2. Games with more entertaining and/or unusual purposes - exploring remote places, racing, sports, etc.
  3. Passive virtual environments - multisensory stimulation, unconditioned emotional reactions to activate mental activity in neurodynamic disorders.
  4. Group virtual environments where patients compete with other participants in the performance of a particular task.

From the point of view of the rehabilitation component, virtual programs are conventionally divided into training motor skills, cognitive functions, or correcting the emotional state of patients. This division is conditional since any BP program affects all these areas.

In rehabilitation, an important role is played by the patient's return to daily activity, which is associated not only with the restoration of specific movements but also with the training of higher nervous activity in general (cognitive and emotional functions), which makes it possible to adapt the disabilities to the environment. Thus, patients will be able to return safely to their usual activities in the Virtual Environment: shopping in a store (training of working memory), navigating in a shopping center (training in spatial orientation), finding people by their external characteristics (training of selective attention), looking for familiar places. on the street (training of recognition memory), to pay at the checkout (training of the account). VR exercises, both motor and cognitive, can be easily reproduced the required number of times with an adjustable intensity level depending on the patient's capabilities.

In virtual rehabilitation systems, the patient usually receives information:

  • about the movement itself in the form of its visualization;
  • on the accuracy of the task performance through the system of reverse sensory stimulation;
  • about changes in the surrounding virtual world.

Benefits of Virtual Rehabilitation:

  1. Higher level of safety and control over the level and intensity of stimuli.
  2. Better provision of patient confidentiality during treatment.
  3. Significant reduction in the risk of trauma to patients during treatment.
  4. Ability to adapt scenarios to the needs of a particular patient by his expectations and capabilities.
  5. Ease of repeating specific virtual scenarios the required number of times with customizable incentives.
  6. Possibility to reduce the number and duration of sessions due to the greater efficiency of the generated incentives.
  7. Reducing the cost of treatment due to the inclusion of virtual scenarios in the program.
  8. Attractiveness to patients: some patients see new technologies as more effective, which increases their adherence to therapy.

There are some difficulties in the use of Virtual Rehabilitation in clinical practice:

  • Specialists will need certain guidelines for the effective and safe use of VR in their daily work.
  • The cost of software and hardware for VR, limiting wider applications.
  • The need for educational programs or courses to develop the skill of using VR.
  • A skeptical attitude of some specialists to VR as to computer entertainment games.

VR is a computer technology that replaces or distorts information from the senses, alters and analyzes the response of the body, ensuring the interaction of the body with the generated VS.

Following from the definition, when mentioning VR technologies in rehabilitation, it is necessary to clarify:

  • What kind of computer technologies:
  • description of the program by genre, method of exposure, visual presentation, number of players, game platform;
  • for additional devices - which helmet, platform, sensors;
  • What level of substitution of sensory information - full or partial;
  • What sensory modality is influenced by VR - visual, auditory, vestibular, proprioceptive, tactile and temperature, olfactory, gustatory;
  • Methods for analyzing the body's responses - peripheral sensors, tracking systems, gyroscope, accelerometer, proximity sensor, sensor gloves, shoes or suits, face and emotion recognition system, etc .;
  • What responses of the organism are corrected:
  • emotional - positive / negative, desensitization;
  • cognitive - attention, executive functions, memory (visual and verbal), spatial orientation, speed of reactions, and speech;
  • behavioral - movements of the upper and/or lower limbs, walking, maintaining posture, activity from the patient's daily life, etc.

The presence of a systematic approach to the creation of virtual rehabilitation programs and a clear understanding of the body's reactions to which the impact is exerted will expand the arsenal of endpoints for future research using both clinical scales and objective neurophysiological methods.

There is also an objective fact that VR technologies are developing so rapidly, especially in the gaming segment, that scientists do not have time to introduce a new device into the field of medicine, and even more so to carry out a study of its effectiveness when other more advanced and accurate devices appear. Also, among specialists, the issue of creating common VR spaces for rehabilitation is being discussed, which will include a hospital site or alternative resources that unite both the patients themselves and their relatives and rehabilitation specialists.

Bethany Thomas
Biohacking: The Art and Science of Upgrading the Human Being

There are ways to prolong one's life: man has come up with drug therapy, organ replacement, cloning, and even cryopreservation. But recently a new method has appeared that attracts those who are ready to spend hundreds of thousands of dollars on their health - biohacking.

What is biohacking?

Biohacking is a set of actions aimed at improving the quality and longevity of a person's life. It often includes nutritional correction, training, and meditation, taking special medications, and psychological training.

Today it is a relatively new, fashionable concept of a healthy lifestyle. And the people who practice it are called biohackers. But if a healthy lifestyle in the broad sense of the word implies following simple rules: do not eat sweet, flour, fatty foods, move more, then in biohacking, the approach is more serious. Biohackers base all actions to improve their lives based on analyzes and medical tests: they conduct tests - they start "treatment", again conduct tests - correct the "treatment" and so on.

How does biohacking work?

The main thing in biohacking is a systematic approach, drawing up a lifestyle program, physical activity strictly for yourself. The practice is based on diagnostics: laboratory, functional, and others.

The approach consists of two main stages:

  1. consultation, diagnostics, and preparation of an individual program.
  2. re-diagnosis, consultation, and treatment correction.

First of all, biohacking includes nutritional correction and diet selection. Next - monitoring physical activity and scheduling classes. As well as normalization of sleep, regulation and activation of thinking, correction of the emotional response to stressful conditions.

Biohacking covers several areas:

  • nutrition,
  • exercise stress,
  • dream,
  • control and correction of the level of vitamins, minerals, and fatty acids,
  • control of the state of the body according to the main indicators (especially the level of hormones),
  • drawing up a genetic map,
  • psychological practices.

Attention to yourself

Learning about yourself is a postulate that runs through the entire philosophy of biohacking and requires an understanding of at least the general state of health.

In addition to basic screening studies, biohackers "promote" the compilation of a personal genetic map. Complete decoding of the genome (as far as modern technologies allow), allows us to identify the "strengths and weaknesses" of the body, as well as to predict future diseases. And it would seem that the "thing" is really necessary, but with genetics, everything is not so simple.

The fact is that there are so many genes that lead to disease in 100% of carriers. These include, for example, BRCA, which is responsible for breast cancer. The carrier of such a gene turned out to be the famous actress Angelina Jolie, who in connection with a dangerous "find" made a radical decision - not to wait for cancer, but to completely remove the mammary glands.

In most cases, certain genes or mutations in them are a risk factor, not a sentence. For their "manifestation" trigger factors are needed, and no one can say "whether they will make themselves felt" with 100% certainty.

Is biohacking dangerous?

The body can be harmed by taking a large number of drugs. In the list of drugs that biohackers take, there are also quite serious ones. For example, the blood sugar-lowering metformin. Usually, it is prescribed for diabetics, and practitioners take it for weight loss, prevention of cancer and heart disease, slowing down the aging of the body. Although metformin is recognized by WHO as one of the safest drugs, it is not completely without side effects: it can cause digestive problems and addiction.

In addition, prolonged fasting and dieting can adversely affect health. Many biohackers eliminate food, not for 14–20 hours, but seven days in a row! They believe it will help you lose weight, increase your body's performance, and stabilize your mood. Doctors warn that fasting can lead to indigestion if not carefully monitored. It is also fraught with increased susceptibility to infections and heart failure.

Psychologists believe that biohacking also changes a person's thinking. The idea of improving yourself and achieving mega-results can become obsessive. And an attempt to establish complete total control over the processes occurring in the body can lead to serious physical and psychological problems.

Thus, the biohacking system, on the one hand, is a powerful tool for maintaining health and activity, and on the other hand, it is an area of experiment, the conduct of which requires the participation of a qualified medical specialist.

Bethany Thomas
Biofeedback Therapy: Uses and Benefits

The present time is an age of instability, chronic pain and anxiety, a crazy pace of life, and total fatigue. The human body, often, cannot withstand such a load on the psyche. And as a result, there are various failures in the nervous system which lead to the development of chronic diseases.

However, you can learn to manage your psycho-emotional state with the help of the new modern biofeedback method.

Biofeedback therapy = modern computer technology + modern scientific knowledge about the structure of the brain + effective psychotechnology

Indications for the use of biofeedback

Biofeedback therapy is becoming an increasingly versatile method of diagnosis and treatment in various areas of human health.

Biofeedback therapy is actively used in psychology, psychiatry, neurology, cardiology, gastroenterology, urology, pediatrics, geriatrics, restorative medicine, stress management, education, sports, art, etc.

The list of diseases with which it effectively works is constantly expanding.

Who needs biofeedback sessions?

  • Patients suffering from various chronic diseases
  • Executives and office workers to prevent stress and improve performance
  • Children to improve concentration, learning, and behavior correction
  • Athletes to improve their performance in sports and reduce the risk of injury

List of diseases for which biofeedback therapy is used:

  • Tension headaches
  • Migraine
  • Panic attacks
  • Phobias
  • Psychosomatics
  • Post-stroke disorders
  • Depression (reactive, unipolar)
  • Insomnia
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Vegetovascular dystonia
  • ADD / ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
  • Bruxism, tinnitus
  • Hyperhidrosis
  • Neurotic and anxiety disorders
  • Post-traumatic stress syndrome
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Postoperative gait and muscle tone disorders
  • Chronic pain syndrome
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Scoliosis
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Psychoimmunological disorders
  • Hypertonic disease
  • Raynaud's disease
  • Peptic ulcer
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Diseases of the musculoskeletal system (posture disorders, scoliosis, osteochondrosis, flat feet);
  • Premenstrual syndrome, menopause
  • Erectile dysfunction (impotence)
  • Diabetes mellitus I and II types
  • Thyrotoxicosis
  • Alcoholism
  • Addiction
  • Tobacco smoking
  • Preparing pregnant women for childbirth
  • Difficulties in the intimate sphere

Relative contraindications

  • Gross violations of intelligence, attention, memory;
  • Epilepsy and convulsive conditions;
  • Somatic and endocrine diseases in the acute stage;
  • Psychopathy, personality disorders;
  • Acute infectious diseases;
  • Obesity III degrees;
  • Not applicable to children under 5 years of age

More about biofeedback technology

Biofeedback is a form of individual training of a patient together with a psychologist to achieve quick results, transferring his body and his consciousness to the necessary modes for a healthy and fulfilling life. Using the laws of psychophysiology and modern computer technology, biofeedback is a therapeutic approach for teaching patients to control muscle work, combining knowledge and techniques from the fields of medicine and psychology. This therapeutic method allows the patient to learn to control many physiological functions such as breathing, blood pressure, muscle tension, and emotional background under the influence of stress.

The essence of the biofeedback therapy

Biofeedback is a real fitness for the brain, which in turn controls all functions of the human body.

A biofeedback therapy session is carried out using a special apparatus that "reads" the main parameters of a person's vital activity, sends them to a computer program, and that, in turn, converts signals into images that are intuitive for the patient (sounds, pictures, games, etc.).

The principle of operation of the biofeedback apparatus is similar to the principle of operation of a lie detector. By analogy with a lie detector, the device performs the initial registration and the slightest changes during the treatment session of the following physiological parameters:

  • heart rate;
  • changes in the quality of the heartbeat at rest and during test loads;
  • the level of synchronicity of the heartbeat during inhalation and output, which may indicate depletion of the internal forces of the body;
  • the number of respiratory movements;
  • the degree of the rhythm of breathing, the degree of completeness of inhalation and exhalation by the stomach and chest, an important indicator of vital processes in all organs and tissues of the body;
  • muscle tension in one muscle or two opposite muscles;
  • vascular tone;
  • sweating of the fingers;
  • blood pressure level;
  • peripheral temperature;
  • waves of the electrical activity of the brain, etc.
  • changes in brain activity waves during mental stress, during test loads

Although biofeedback therapy requires rather sophisticated equipment, technology, and an experienced certified specialist, its essence is very simple: it is a treatment-learning playfully.

The brain learns new ways of working using feedback signals. This learning process is very similar to a game: the patient, under the supervision of a doctor, performs certain tasks and sees how far or close he is to his goal.

It is the playful and visual aspects that make biofeedback therapy an indispensable method for working with children and adolescents in terms of effectiveness.

Bethany Thomas
A New Way for Therapists to Get Inside Heads: Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality (VR) is an innovative psychotherapy method aimed at improving the treatment of various mental disorders (phobias, anxiety disorders, and PTSD).

Twenty years of psychological research have proven the improvement of traditional therapy in all directions with the use of VR technology. Until recently, it was only available in medical centers and university research laboratories.

Virtual Reality offers clear benefits in treating anxiety. Previously, a necessary part of therapy was exposure to a frightening situation, first in your imagination, and then necessarily live, that is, to fly an airplane, drive a car, enter elevators, go on stage in front of an audience, climb on roofs, feed spiders, etc. When it comes to unpleasant frightening memories - it becomes difficult for a person to imagine them. This is why phobias and PTSD have been so "difficult" to get rid of - people tend to avoid the phobia. The dropout rate from therapy was significant.

Now all these situations can be tested and trained in a psychotherapist's office using Virtual Reality. Simpler, easier and much cheaper, and most importantly - by controlling the degree of impact - from the "weakest" degree of anxiety in the situation to the "strongest", repeating as much as you want and need, gradually moving on to an increasingly difficult task, sometimes even exceeding reality itself ... You can independently control most of the session time and objectively assess your progress using biofeedback (these are sensors that attach to your fingers), which objectively shows how you are feeling and demonstrates your progress. Thanks to VR, you can more easily and quickly solve the problem of phobias and anxiety disorders.

Of course, VR is only a tool, and the main thing is psychotherapy itself, but it is so convenient to have any phobic situation at hand so that, being right in it, you can change your feelings, work out your thoughts, and train your behavior. This is very effective because only being in the very situation that creates a feeling of anxiety or fear, you get access to the thoughts that create such an inappropriate emotion, and only here, in this place where "everyone converges" - can these thoughts be caught, replaced and thus you change the emotion. The main rule is that emotion is a reaction to thoughts about a situation. You need to be able to distinguish between dangerous situations and scary situations. Be able to separate thoughts and feelings to manage your feelings. Anxious patients with phobias have inappropriate responses to non-dangerous situations that are perceived as very scary. Awareness of your feelings and thoughts, repeated training in the most phobic situations leads to damping of fear and eliminates the symptoms of anxiety. It is good when the reactions are adequate to the situations. Many people, out of fear of life, limit themselves so much that they do not live their lives. By repetition of exposure and re-awareness, we learn not to be afraid of situations and places, and to relate to many things calmly. To live, and not interfere with your life. This is how we conquer our fear, this is how we develop our skills. Overcoming anxiety - a person finds HIMSELF and begins to live his OWN LIFE.

The very idea of ​​VRT is not new, but until recently the technology was not widespread due to the high cost and complexity of the equipment. Now the appearance of more advanced, inexpensive, and mobile technology opens up the possibility of widespread provision of psychological assistance using virtual reality.

VRT is used to improve conditions such as:

  • post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD),
  • phobias (social phobia, acrophobia (fear of heights), fear of flying, fear of public speaking, fear of driving),
  • anxiety disorders,
  • obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD),
  • panic attacks,
  • psychosomatic pain syndromes.

VRT can also be used as part of a rehabilitation program for patients with autism and schizophrenia by improving their social activity.

VR psychotherapy helps to overcome: fear of public speaking, claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces), acrophobia (fear of heights), fear of air travel; fear of driving, arachnophobia (fear of spiders), agoraphobia (fear of large open spaces), fear of the dark, fear of blood (injections and medical interventions), and PTSD (post-accident, rape, assault, and war syndrome).

It has been scientifically proven that Virtual Reality, due to the power of the effect of engaging/absorbing attention, can reduce the subjective sensation of pain by up to 60%. It is successfully used for non-drug pain relief in minor medical interventions (dressings for burn patients, painful procedures, dentistry, etc.), as well as for chronic, phantom pain. VR meditations and self-hypnosis can help relieve depression, relieve pain and improve sleep in children in pediatric wards and cancer patients.

What projects based on the application of virtual reality therapy have already been launched in the world? There is a small overview.

  1. Bravemind. A joint project of the University of California and the Pentagon; task - the treatment of PTSD in military personnel; widely used in the US Army.
  2. Virtually better. VR-therapy system for mental disorders. Consists of a customizable virtual reality environment, vibrotactile platform, and olfactory machine that create the full range of stimuli associated with the simulated situation. Software for dealing with phobias, including fear of flying, heights, public speaking, and the storm. In development - projects for the treatment of childhood anxiety and social phobia.
  3. Limbix. VR-therapy system for clinical use. Treatment of various mental conditions and disorders.
  4. Beyond sports. VR-therapy system for PTSD, based on desensitization and processing by eye movements (DPDG-therapy, EMDR).
  5. Virtual Reality Medical Center. A VR-based aerophobia treatment system that includes a device and software that simulates a flight.
  6. Psious. Universal VR platform for psychiatrists and psychotherapists, used for VR therapy of the widest range of mental disorders.
  7. DEEP. A VR meditation game where the user explores the underwater world using their breath through biofeedback.
Bethany Thomas
Everything you need to know about developmental pediatrics

Pediatrics is the science of the distinctive features in the structure, functions, and diseases of the child's body, and based on those features, the preservation of health and the treatment of diseases in children.

In other words, the main task of pediatrics is to preserve or return (in case of illness) the state of health to the child, allowing him to fully realize his innate life potential.

Developmental pediatrics is the science of developmental and clinical epidemiology, a holistic approach to the child, family, and social environment. Assessment of cognitive function (such as thinking ability, learning ability, problem-solving ability), language ability, speaking ability, relationship building, emotionality, movement, self-defense, and behavior. It is an industry-focused on prevention, early diagnosis, and developmental difficulties. Developmental pediatrics helps to find a scientific approach to the treatment of children with disabilities, general developmental problems.

Developmental pediatrics has become a sideline of pediatrics in many countries. The Department of Developmental Pediatrics opened in the United States of America in the 1980s. There is an international association (Development Pediatrics Society) that annually publishes journals and scientific articles. Countries engaged in Development Pediatrics Research: Germany, USA, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, Philippines, Finland, France, South Africa, India, Netherlands, Japan, UK, Israel, Italy, Sweden, Canada, Malaysia, Egypt, Norway, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, New Zealand, and Greece.

Often, child development is subdivided into specific segments, which, although they overlap significantly, are still useful for pediatric research purposes. The main directions of the child's development are:

  • Development of motor skills, which includes gross motor skills (sitting, walking, climbing stairs) and fine motor skills (gripping small objects, drawing).
  • Language development, language understanding, and speaking skills. Expressive speech delays are usually not associated with other developmental delays; however, it is important to monitor all children whose development is too late to prevent further developmental delays. It is also important that the study of any delay begins with hearing control.
  • Cognitive development, that is, the child's intellectual maturation, which is assessed in the early years mainly through observation of language, curiosity, the ability to solve problems, understand the concept of time, and the ability to focus simultaneously on more than one aspect of an event or situation.
  • Emotional and behavioral development, which naturally depends on the character and personality of the child and includes the expression of his or her feelings about the outside world and the development of social and interpersonal skills.

Of course, there is no specific time when all children must learn to walk or hold a spoon, but various studies have established what is the average age for reaching certain stages, as well as the intervals of normality. Child development progress, however, remains variable, as is the case for children who start to walk late but speak earlier than other children. Many genetic, psychological, and environmental factors (for example, nutritional intake or stimulation), as well as the influence of possible diseases, affect the variability of a child's development in different areas. Development is monitored and evaluated continuously.

Worldwide, child mortality is decreasing, but morbidity and problems are increasing. The proportion of children with disabilities requiring diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up is 13-17%.

Developmental pediatricians treat the following conditions:

  • Premature babies and those born with perinatal problems
  • Children with Down syndrome
  • Children with difficulty speaking, cognitive problems, communication problems, movement.
  • Children with chronic diseases affecting all organs
  • Children with nutritional and sleep problems
  • Children with problems affecting the development of movement, especially cerebral palsy

Children in their development go through 7 "critical" periods, during which the highest probability of damage to the body and the development of diseases:

  1. The most dramatic period is the stage of intrauterine development of the embryo (1st trimester of pregnancy) and the fetus (3rd trimester of pregnancy). At this time, there is a high probability of death of the nascent organism, the occurrence of congenital anomalies, and intrauterine infections.
  2. Newborn period (0-28 days of life). By the time of birth, the developed vital organs and systems of the child provide him with an independent existence.
  3. The period of infancy - from 28 days to 1 year. It is a very important and responsible time. By the age of one, the baby is already a conscious being, actively responding to everything around him. The child's weight is already 3 times more than at birth, and his height has increased by 25 cm.
  4. Nursery age - from 1 to 3 years. During this period, basic skills and functions are mastered - speech develops, the child begins to understand a lot, dresses himself, becomes more and more interested in the world around him. A lot during this period depends on the correct upbringing of the child.
  5. The early preschool period - from 3 to 7 years old - is characterized by the formation of the higher nervous system, most of the biochemical parameters, accelerated growth, the formation of chronic diseases, neurotization. It is very important to help your child develop correctly and harmoniously.
  6. School-age is a responsible time for the formation of a human personality. It is necessary to help the child to cultivate character, choose a business to his liking, and determine a profession for his future life. And here the teacher and parents can have a good assistant - a pediatrician.
  7. The adolescent period - from 15 to 18 years old - is an extremely crucial period of growing up. In the body of a teenager, a significant restructuring of many functional systems occurs, and puberty begins. It is accompanied by significant shifts in the endocrine system, with the normal or even slow development of other systems - the central nervous system, cardiovascular, etc.
Bethany Thomas
Dermatologist-Approved Skincare Tips for the Best Skin of Your Life

Healthy skin is the key to a healthy body. If you keep your skin healthy, then you are taking care of all the other organs in the body. Medical dermatology is a specialty that primarily cares for the overall health of the skin, rather than the appearance of the skin. Dermatologists are doctors who work in a field of medicine called dermatology that studies the skin, hair, and nails. Dermatologists are dedicated to helping us solve all the related problems from minor skin discomfort to real diseases that a person may face. But there are some useful tips and tricks that every dermatologist would like to give their potential patients. We will list the most important ones.

  • Sun protection

The sun emits ultraviolet rays that are very harmful to our skin. They cause most skin cancers and severe sunburn. Avoid sun exposure as much as possible. Although the sun's rays are the most important source of vitamin D needed for healthy bones, you only need to open your skin to the sun for a certain amount of time. It is very important to use sunscreen to help protect the delicate layer of dermal cells that cover our body from intense sun exposure. Sunscreens should be used not only while in the sun but also when you need to protect the skin from the heat.

  • Healthy eating

A balanced diet and drinking plenty of water are fundamental steps to healing any skin problem or disease. Fruits and green vegetables are an integral part of the human diet; they provide us with nutrients and vitamins that are very important for skin health. Valuable elements such as iron, calcium, and potassium are also found in many fruits and vegetables. Avoid sugary foods, as they tend to cause skin inflammation. It is recommended to drink about 2 liters of water every day. Dehydrated skin begins to show signs of aging and makes a person look older, while water hydrates dermal cells and prevents wrinkles.

  • Adequate sleep

Our skin regenerates while we sleep. It takes time to recover from the stress it faced throughout the day, exposed to sun, dust, and pollution. We must provide it with this time at night, resting as much as each person is entitled to. Long and restful sleep allows the skin to get rid of dead cells better and better and to regenerate itself. Healthy sleep also promotes the production of serotonin, one of the most beneficial hormones for health and wellness.

  • Regular sports

We often don't understand the importance of exercise in our lives. Physical activity is needed not only for burning calories but also for daily skincare. We need a healthy circulatory system that maintains normal blood flow in the blood vessels of the skin, and physical activity stimulates the release of adrenaline, which increases the speed of blood flow. The increased blood flow promotes lymphatic drainage and brings blood to the surface of the body, which is very beneficial for skin health.

  • Washing off cosmetics

The use of cosmetics is widespread nowadays. Every day, women apply numerous layers of various cosmetic products to their skin, and many cannot leave the house without this. We feel beautiful and confident, knowing full well that cosmetic products provide only temporary beauty. Anything we put on our skin fills its pores and prevents it from breathing. However, oxygen is needed in all seven layers of the dermis, so it is highly recommended to wash off makeup before bed to give the skin a rest.

  • Examine your skin

Signs of most internal diseases appear on the skin, so keep a close eye on its condition, investigate any change, even a small one, that you find, write down all the signs and symptoms, and be sure to contact a dermatologist if something causes you concern. Unhealthy skin can be a sign of unhealthy other organs. Never ignore what it is trying to tell you. If acne, rashes, or new moles suddenly appear on it, this should not be considered the norm, but a problem requiring specialist advice.

  • Individual approach

We use a lot of skin products when we want to cleanse, moisturize, or just temporarily beautify them. But how much time do we devote to finding the right product for us? It is important to first thoroughly examine your skin, and then buy the products that are intended for it. We are attracted to different brands for many reasons, such as liked ads, celebrity endorsements, favorite fragrances, or colorful packaging. However, none of these factors is, and should not be, a sufficient reason to buy. All dermatologists advise choosing skin products only after careful consideration of their characteristics and needs.

  • Make your skincare routine

Taking care of your skin should be one of the priorities, an indispensable part of your daily routine. We often eagerly begin to heal or cleanse our face, and then forget about it and take a long break. This irregularity does not help prevent skin problems. Cleanse your face every 3-4 days, deep clean at least once every two weeks, and fruit masks can be done almost daily. The needs of the skin for caring procedures depend on its type, so an individual approach is also important here. If you are new to this and want to start your journey, try using all-natural products such as organic soap or lotions. Each of them is unique and you can find a better fit for your skin. For instance, if you have oily skin you can use natural goat milk soap which will gently remove oil from your skin without any irritation. If you have dry skin it would be better to use soaps that contain coconut butter that will smooth your skin and keep it hydrated. * Avoid excessive skincare

While regular skin grooming is recommended, there is such a thing as " excessive" skincare. Yes, from time to time it needs not only superficial cleansing, but also deep exfoliation, but you should not get carried away with this. This can give it extra shine, but it can also damage it. Avoid brushing or exfoliating your skin daily, as this tends to make it prone to breakage and dryness. Ask a professional for their opinion on the amount and type of product to be used.

Bethany Thomas
How we affect our brains: amazing examples

Perhaps the brain is the most mysterious organ of our body. Scientists are constantly learning new facts about its work, but there are still many mysteries. Everyone knows the phrase about the fact that a person uses only 10% of his brain. Whether this is true or not, it is obvious that the brain harbors many secrets that we do not even know about. Is the brain enlarging, how do the hemispheres work, and how does adrenaline work on us? Neurophysiologist John Arden reveals interesting facts about our brain that scientists have learned not so long ago thanks to the latest discoveries.

  • Hugging is useful

When we touch a loved one, the hormone oxytocin is produced. It is because of it that attachment and love arise. Endorphins – "hormones of happiness" are released. Because of this, hugs are helpful. It turns out that they even increase immunity: it has been proven that massage (which, of course, consists of continuous touches) enhances the protective functions in cancer patients. Another effect of "hugs" is calming, reducing irritability.

  • The brain grows when we learn new information

When we memorize something, the brain grows in size. To be more precise, the size of the area that is responsible for the new skill increases. For it, the brain "frees up" more space. For example, in blind people who can read Braille, the area of ​​the brain responsible for the fingers with which they "read" embossed letters is much larger than in sighted people. And right-handed musicians have a larger area of ​​the brain responsible for playing the instrument with the right hand.

  • The myth of the hemispheres

It is not true that the left and right hemispheres are turned on and off. Both hemispheres always work together. And it doesn't depend on what you are doing, whether you are left-handed or right-handed, a creative person or a fan of numbers. All thoughts, emotions, and sensations of a person are processed in two hemispheres of the brain at once.

  • The effect of adrenaline

In stressful situations, the body releases adrenaline. Everyone knows how the heart begins to beat faster and breathing quickens. But there are other effects as well. The blood vessels constrict - the body prepares for possible blood loss if injured. The digestion of food stops - this requires energy, which is needed now. Also, adrenaline increases resting pressure, so that the muscles can instantly start working. Thus, in case of danger, you are 100% ready thanks to adrenaline.

  • The brain is the universe

The human brain is made up of billions of nerve cells called neurons, as well as many more helper cells. This is comparable to the number of stars in our galaxy. Compare what the neurons of the human brain and the cosmos look like. You will see a lot in common. Scientists have taken photographs that confirm this.

  • Smarter than a cat

The frontal lobes of the human brain perform important functions. They are responsible for a person's personality, for his speech and movements, for decision-making and behavior in general. Some scientists even believe that the frontal lobes are the most important part of the brain. Interestingly, the cat's frontal lobes occupy 3.5% of the brain, and in humans - as much as 20% and even 50% of the brain's weight falls on them. This advantage is given to man by evolution.

  • Why are some athletes not so smart

Sport triggers the formation of new nerve cells. But it cannot cope with the task alone. For the brain to create many new neurons, it also needs mental exercise. This is probably why some professional athletes are distinguished by intelligence, and some do not shine with it: because someone reads books, and someone does not.

  • Sunlight cures depression

Many depressed people prefer not to leave the house, draw the curtains and enjoy teary films in pitch darkness. This is an extremely unfortunate decision. Such people do not see natural daylight, which triggers important biochemical processes in the brain. The less sun, the stronger the depression. The same goes for mood. If you suddenly feel sad, walk outside and you will immediately feel better.

Bethany Thomas
Interesting facts about heart that you did not know

You know that you cannot live without the beating of your heart. But did you know that during the day your heart makes about 100,000 contractions, and during your life - more than 2.5 billion? At the same time, it pumps about 160 million liters of blood.

Here are some more amazing facts about your heart:

  1. The heart is an amazing organ. Its weight in an adult is almost 300 grams, and in a newborn child, it is only 22 grams, which is about 0.8 percent of the total body weight.

  2. To find out how big your heart is, just clench your hand into a fist. The size of the heart will be almost the same. And if you take a tennis ball in your hand and squeeze it with maximum force, you will find out how much effort your heart muscle makes to pump blood through the body every second.

  3. Unsuccessful exercise may indicate a heart problem. If several workouts in a row you are unable to achieve normal results, see your doctor. This could be a sign of heart muscle problems.

  4. "Broken Heart" is not just a poetic saying. When you are stressed and suffer from an emotional trauma, the body produces hormones that overstrain the heart muscle. This can lead to palpitations and even a heart attack. Therefore, the expression "all diseases from the nerves" can be easily applied to cardiovascular diseases. Don't be overstressed and your heart will be healthy.

  5. Sex is good for the heart. According to the American Journal of Cardiology, men who have sex at least twice a week have a lower risk of heart disease than those who do it once a month or less.

  6. Laughter is good too. It lowers the stress hormone cortisol, which reduces inflammation in the arteries and raises good cholesterol.

  7. The heart remembers everything. Childhood trauma can lead to heart problems in the future. For example, scientists at Virginia Tech and the University of Toronto have found that children whose relatives are imprisoned have a higher risk of having a heart attack.

  8. A woman's heart beats faster than a man's. Perhaps that is why women are more sensitive and emotional.

  9. It has been scientifically proven that people with higher levels of education have less heart disease. This is associated with an attentive attitude to their health.

  10. Heart scars do not go away. Unlike other organs, the heart cannot heal itself. That is why it is so important to carry out timely treatment for heart attacks. The damage to the heart is increasing every minute.

  11. New methods of treatment. Scientists at Carnegie Mellon University have 3D printed arteries and whole hearts of embryos. Other scientists have succeeded in printing adult stem cells. Such replacements may be implanted in patients.

  12. Excess weight harms the heart at any age. Signs of heart disease, including thickening of its walls, are observed even in overweight children as young as 8 years old. What can we say about adults?

  13. Heart disease and even operations on it do not mean the end of a healthy life. Doctors report patients who, after successful treatment, go in for a triathlon and run marathons on a par with ordinary people.

Bethany Thomas
Bariatrics – how to get rid of the weight FOREVER

Being overweight at some point causes many endocrine diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Fatty tissue in the body is mostly represented by white fat cells, and if a person puts on weight, their amount does not rise, they just grow in volume.

White fat cells have endocrine activity, they produce many active substances that are involved in metabolic processes. With an excess, almost all of them are involved in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. The most dangerous hormone in adipose tissue is leptin, which is involved in the regulation of hunger and weight gain. All patients with severe obesity suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory systems and some chronic ailments.

Dieting does not always lead to the expected outcome. Sometimes the degree of obesity is so high that the risk of developing concomitant diseases increases with every kilogram gained. The stomach turns its owner into a hostage, living with tens of extra pounds. When excess weight becomes a real threat to life, and diet and sports do not help, obesity has to be dealt with in radical ways.

Bariatrics is a branch of medicine that studies and treats obesity and its causes. Being overweight is the cause of such diseases as diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea, bronchial asthma, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, heart, and other organs. Being overweight is often the cause of infertility in both women and men. In addition to health problems people often suffer from bad mood.

Bariatric surgery is a modern and effective way to deal with excess weight, which allows you to achieve significant weight loss, even in cases where all other methods have failed. At the same time, the risk of complications after bariatric surgery is not higher than after any other surgery on the abdominal organs.

Increasingly, bariatric surgery is helping obese people lose weight and improve their life. All bariatric surgeries have two goals: to reduce the amount of food eaten at one time by reducing the volume of the stomach and to reduce the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. Bariatrics offers several quick ways to lose weight:

  • gastric banding
  • gastric bypass
  • biliopancreatic bypass
  • sleeve gastrectomy

Surgical treatment of obesity is used according to indications developed by the International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders (IFSO).

  • body mass index> 35 kg / m2
  • the presence and progression of concomitant diseases against the background of obesity
  • refractoriness to therapeutic methods of treatment

The operation is recommended for a very high level of obesity, when the excess weight in men exceeds 45 kg, in women - 35 kg. Bariatric surgeries are not done simply at the request of the patient, they are performed when conservative methods of treating obesity - diet, exercise, drug correction - are ineffective. Also, sleeve gastrectomy is recommended for those who cannot control their eating behavior, for those who are desperate because of fruitless attempts to lose weight, and in cases where physical activity is contraindicated for the patient.

Bariatric surgeries are not performed on underage patients, people with alcohol or drug addiction, mental illness - psychosis, severe depression. Other contraindications include body mass index less than 30, pregnancy, Cushing's disease, incurable hypothyroidism, gastric or esophageal ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease, acute ischemic heart disease, including 6 months before treatment.

Before the operation, it is necessary to take some tests, get advice from a therapist, endocrinologist, and psychiatrist.

The first day after the operation, the patient is in the intensive care unit, then he is transferred to the surgical department and when all body functions are normalized, he is discharged from the hospital. Meals begin on the third day after the operation 5-6 times a day, in small portions. Gradually, the patient will develop new eating habits - eating less will become the norm for him. They are allowed to get up on the second day after the operation. And in two weeks a person can go to work if his activity is not associated with heavy physical exercise - he will have to refrain from this for two months. But then physical activity is mandatory: walking at least three kilometers a day, swimming, cycling, or aerobics will help to overcome the difficulties of the recovery period more easily and quickly return to a full-fledged lifestyle.

A year after the operation, a person will smoothly lose up to 60-70% of excess weight, in rare cases it takes about 1.5 years. It is important that losing weight is irreversible - the weight will go away and will never return. This is the most important advantage of obesity surgery. In addition, along with being overweight, diseases associated with obesity will gradually disappear or significantly regress: type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, hyperlipidemia, arthritis, infertility.

Bethany Thomas
Medical emergencies in flight: Inspiring Stories

For most passengers, flying an airplane is an important part of the journey. Sometimes in flight, not everything goes according to plan because of the confined space, prolonged sitting, and other factors. Most often, medical help is not required - the ailment goes away by itself or disappears after landing. However, there are situations in which you cannot do without help - flight attendants begin to look for doctors among passengers flying on the same board. We have compiled a selection of impressive stories in which doctors had to assist right in an airplane.

  • Place of birth: somewhere over the Atlantic

In December 2017, an unusual situation occurred on board an aircraft en route from New Delhi to New York with a stopover in Paris. The crew commander asked if there was a doctor among the passengers - urologist Sij Hemal and pediatrician Susan Shepherd responded to the call.
The doctors were told that Toyin Ogundipe, who was suddenly in labor, needed help. An emergency landing was possible no earlier than two hours later, and therefore the doctors, together with the flight attendants, began to prepare for the fact that, most likely, the child would be born on board the plane.
The contractions were already every 10 minutes and gradually became more frequent. Toyin was transferred to business class, which had more space and fewer passengers. The woman flew with her four-year-old daughter, and one of the flight attendants remained to look after her.
Using medical equipment on board, doctors monitored the woman's blood pressure, pulse, and oxygen levels. Within an hour, the contractions went every two minutes, and after another half an hour a boy was born. Dr. Hemal cut the umbilical cord, and Dr. Shepherd examined the baby and helped the mother attach it to her breast.
After landing in New York, the newborn baby was taken to the hospital with his mother and older sister. A day later, the family went home, no violations in the condition of the boy and his mother were found.

  • The orange that nearly became a killer

In November 2004, Yuri Iosifovich Bravve, Doctor of Medical Sciences, now head of the City Clinical Hospital No. 1 of Novosibirsk, Russia, together with his friends flew Novosibirsk - Beijing.
“We flew for two hours already and flight attendants started serving dinner, including fruits - oranges. A woman who ate an orange developed an immediate allergic reaction that triggered subsequent cardiac arrest, says Yuri Bravve. - The crew asked the passengers if there were doctors on board, so we volunteered to help. The passenger was moved to the first cabin, where very few people were flying. The woman had very low blood pressure, and in general her condition was close to the terminal. "

A medical team led by Bravve carried out resuscitation measures: artificial heart massage in a closed manner, mouth-to-mouth breathing with simultaneous pressure control. After the cardiac arrest was recorded, it was decided to inject the adrenaline available in the medical kit directly into the heart muscle.
“My main specialty is a healthcare organization, but I also had a certificate in thoracic (pulmonary) surgery. Through the chest, I injected adrenaline directly into the heart. The first aid kit on board was surprisingly well-stocked. To bring the woman to consciousness, it took us about 40 minutes. Later she told us that she had never encountered such a food allergy before. I do not know the last name of this woman, but on the return flight the crew said that they were aware of the incident, and also said that everything was in order with her health”.
An emergency landing was avoided. Bravve considered that the patient's condition had been stabilized, and therefore the plane flew to Beijing, where an ambulance team met the passenger at the ramp.
“This case is not an isolated one, I have repeatedly assisted passengers on board - there were pain syndromes, status epilepticus, loss of consciousness. However, this situation, when there was a threat to the life of a passenger, is still unique. I always carry documents with me confirming my medical license, as well as a fairly serious first-aid kit that allows me to assist if necessary. "

  • Obstruction of the urinary tract

A passenger on a flight from Guangzhou, China to New York, became ill: a prostate gland has blocked the ureter, making it impossible to urinate. Almost 1000 ml of urine has accumulated in the bladder, which is why there was a real danger of its rupture.
The man was in severe pain and needed medical attention. About six hours remained until the destination, the crew turned to the passengers for help, among whom was the surgeon Zhang Hong.
The doctor assessed the situation and concluded that there was a danger to the patient's life - action should be taken immediately.
Together with another doctor, who also flew on the same plane, he built a catheter to drain urine - for this, he needed a tube from an oxygen mask, tubes from milk that was served to passengers, scotch tape, and a syringe, which was available in the onboard first-aid kit.
However, it soon became clear that the syringe needle was too small and not suitable for removing accumulated urine.
Zhang Hong decided to draw out the urine with his mouth: in 37 minutes, he extracted about 800 ml of urine in this way. The patient's condition improved and the risk of bladder rupture was minimized.
The surgeon explained that there was no other way to help a man suffering from severe pain, which is why he had to act in this way in a critical situation.

  • Asthma attack and self-made inhaler

A transatlantic flight nearly became fatal for a two-year-old boy with asthma. On the board, he began a severe attack: the child was choking, he needed inhalations, and his parents found that they had put the nebulizer in their luggage in one of the suitcases.
Dr. Khurshid Guru, head of the robotic surgery department at one of the US oncological institutes came to the aid of the little patient. The doctor measured the oxygen level in the blood - the readings were very low. An emergency landing was not possible.
There was an adult inhaler on board that was not suitable for use by a child.
Dr. Guru designed a baby nebulizer that provided access to both the necessary medicine and oxygen to the baby's lungs.
By the time of landing, everything was fine - the attack did not recur, hospitalization was not required. Dr. Guru said that he made a transatlantic flight three times - during each of them he had to assist passengers on board.

Bethany Thomas
Opioid analgesics in anesthesiology

A lot of patients require surgery, diagnostic tests, or outpatient procedures to treat all kinds of pathologies. Unfortunately, a protective mechanism such as pain is an obstacle in performing these interventions. Therefore, anesthesiology has become an important applied branch in modern medicine. Modern methods of anesthesia make it possible to provide painless and safe carrying out of a wide range of manipulations. Pain relief is one of the most important tasks in the work of a doctor since pain is the main cause of suffering and the patient's referral to doctors. Thus, according to WHO estimates, 90% of all diseases are associated with pain, and patients with chronic pain are five times more likely to seek medical care than the rest of the population.

Pain is a special feeling that signals tissue damage or the threat of such damage, causing dysfunction of the body, physical suffering, and negative emotional experiences.

In modern clinical practice, pain prevention and treatment are achieved mainly with pain relievers. Among them, the most widely used non-opiate analgesics, represented by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, these drugs are effective only for mild to moderate pain, with the possible exception of injectable forms of lornoxicam, ketorolac, and diclofenac, which are judged to be more active. The most effective pain relievers are opiates (opium alkaloids) and their synthetic counterparts, opioid analgesics. The most severe and acute pain, causing shock reactions, or moderate, but chronic, debilitating pain for the patient can be relieved primarily with the help of opioid analgesics.

Opioids are an essential ingredient in neuroanesthesia and neurological intensive care. They are used to blunt the cardiovascular and nervous systems' responses to stimulation, reduce the need for other sedatives and anesthetics, and provide ventilator synchronization and analgesia in intensive care units or during surgery. Although short-acting drugs are commonly used, long-acting drugs have also been used with success for many years, and there is insufficient evidence that some are superior to others.

The main opioids used for anesthesia are:


  • The short-acting drug with the longest experience in this group.
  • Fentanyl is not suitable for infusion and is given as a bolus before induction and before nerve stimulation steps in surgery.
  • In emergencies, it can be used as an analgesic, but postoperative analgesia with fentanyl is very short-lived.


  • Due to the peculiarities of its pharmacokinetics, alfentanil can be used in the form of infusions, although after prolonged infusion, the patient's awakening is delayed.
  • The very rapid onset of effect (1-2 minutes) makes this drug ideal for use before manipulations that induce nerve stimulation, such as laryngoscopy or fixing Mayfield braces.


  • By its properties, it can replace nitrous oxide and can be used for anesthesia in combination with inhalation and intravenous anesthetics such as propofol.
  • Some anesthetists use the respiratory depressant properties of remifentanil to reduce or avoid the use of muscle relaxants during surgery.
  • Some anesthetists continue to infuse low doses of remifentanil before extubation to avoid hypertension during the procedure.


  • Codeine cannot be administered intravenously, so rapid titration of the dose for analgesia is difficult.
  • In a large percentage of patients, codeine is poorly metabolized and therefore its analgesic effect is insufficient.
  • Usually, a standard dose of codeine is not sufficient to provide adequate analgesia.


  • Morphine has traditionally remained the most popular treatment for postoperative pain relief, although pethidine has also been used successfully.
  • The effect of pain relief after intravenous injection occurs within 15 minutes.
  • The duration of action of morphine is 2 to 3 hours.
Bethany Thomas
Adolescents: Health Risks and How to Prevent Them

One of the important areas in pediatrics is adolescent medicine - a branch of medicine that studies the processes of puberty, maturation, growth, and development of the adolescent’s body and specific diseases characteristic of the adolescent period of life. Adolescent medicine aims to protect and strengthen health, the harmonious development of adolescents’ personalities for the subsequent optimal implementation of their strengths and capabilities in the creative activity of society.

The main tasks of adolescent medicine:

  • the direction of society to create conditions for the implementation of an individual genetically determined program for the development of a teenager,
  • development of the theory of health and the puberty of a teenager, taking into account both biological and social factors,
  • search for methods for analyzing the health of an individual and analyzing the health of the adolescent population,
  • an integrated approach to the protection of somatic, mental, and reproductive health,
  • ensuring harmonious puberty maturation,
  • medical support in the system of forming a full-fledged member of society, taking into account the requirements of productive and defense potential,
  • education and consolidation of medical and hygienic skills of a healthy lifestyle (preventive focus),
  • the adolescent’s awareness of personal responsibility for their health,
  • training and advanced training of medical specialists involved in the protection of adolescent health,
  • development and improvement of forms of medical care for adolescents and students, ensuring the optimal implementation of the tasks set,
  • development of a methodology for adolescent medicine.

The content of medical care for adolescents is determined by two main components of adolescence: the presence of puberty and psychosocial maturation.

Every year more and more adolescents are putting their health at risk. Regarding the question of "who is at greatest risk of dying among adolescents? ", official medical WHO data indicate that at the time of 2019, there were more than 1.5 million deaths of adolescents and young people aged 10-24 years, that is, almost 5, 000 deaths daily. Adolescents in the younger age group (10-14 years old) are at the lowest risk of death among all age groups.

Since medicine does not stand still but develops every day, scientists have identified the main adolescents’ health problems. This list includes:

  • Injuries
  • Violence
  • Mental health
  • Use of alcohol and drugs
  • Tobacco use
  • HIV / AIDS
  • Other infectious diseases
  • Premature pregnancy and childbirth
  • Nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies
  • Malnutrition and obesity
  • Physical activity
  • Adolescents rights

This situation called for urgent action to develop a joint strategy for the health of children and adolescents in the European Region. The strategy was formulated by WHO with the support of the European professional pediatric communities including two areas: measures to improve health and the training of doctors involved in the provision of health care for children and adolescents.

To solve the above issues, WHO encourages adolescents, their parents, and even countries to observe the following measures:

  • To avoid injury from road traffic accidents, there is a need to strengthen the laws regarding safe road traffic, as well as the measures to comply with these rules.
  • Effective approaches to violence prevention need to include strategies that teach parents how to raise and develop their children at an early age. It is also necessary to introduce programs to prevent bullying in school and to develop the life and social skills of children, as well as community-based approaches to limit access to alcohol and firearms.
  • To improve adolescent mental health, WHO recommends that parents develop and support psychosocial skills in children and adolescents in all situations. When identifying mental health problems in adolescents, it is vital to notice the problem in time and contact a specialist for help.
  • Prevention of alcohol and drug use among adolescents is also one of the essential areas of health care. WHO has established basic strategies to combat this problem, such as: setting a minimum age for buying and consuming alcohol, and prohibiting the marketing and advertising of alcoholic beverages to children.
  • Measures such as banning the sale of tobacco products to underage adolescents and increasing the price of tobacco products, banning tobacco advertising, and creating a smoke-free environment will help adolescents avoid tobacco dependence.
  • HIV and AIDS are also common issues among adolescents. Parents need to start talking to their children about this as early as possible, as adolescents need to know how to protect themselves from these infections and must be able to do so.
  • Adolescents should have the right to comprehensive sex education to prevent premature pregnancy and childbirth. There is also a need to improve access to information and contraception services at the country level. Girls who become pregnant early should have access to antenatal care and safe abortions.
  • Healthy eating, namely the formation of healthy eating habits, is laid down in adolescence. It is necessary for parents to correctly explain to adolescents why this is necessary and to interest them. National governments need to restrict marketing products that encourage young people to eat unhealthy diets. Physical activity is also the key to a healthy lifestyle. To improve physical activity, countries, society, and local communities must create a safe and supportive environment and opportunities for all adolescents to engage in physical activity.

Approaching childhood and adolescence from a life-cycle perspective recognizes the intergenerational link that occurs when young people become parents themselves.
While the health sector has a critical role to play in health promotion, prevention, and care, the education, social and financial sectors, and many others, have a major impact on the underlying factors of health. Improving and maintaining the health of children and adolescents requires the efforts of many sectors, with the leading and coordinating role of the health sector.

The health and social well-being of adolescents is of particular significance since they are the closest economic and political potential of society. At the same time, the European demographic trend is a constant decrease in the number of children and adolescents and an increase in the population of adults. This can worsen the economic situation of the countries of the European region. In such a situation, the health of every teenager deserves close attention.

Bethany Thomas
Food allergy: what it is and how to reduce it

Over 50 million Americans suffer from some type of allergy. You might know one of those people or are one yourself. To keep yourself and your children safe, you need to know some essential factors about food allergies and what foods you should avoid.

What is a food allergy?
It is your body's immune response to food proteins. Nevertheless, allergies can be caused not only by pure protein products but also by any other food.

Allergy symptoms can include:

  • Rash
  • Redness
  • Edema
  • Itching
  • Upset stomach
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Irritation of the mucous membrane
  • Asthma

How can you reduce allergies?
To avoid the development of allergies, you must first of all stick to a diet. Meals should be as balanced and safe as possible. Try to determine which foods you can eat and which ones you should avoid.

It is necessary to eliminate those products for which you have an individual intolerance.

What foods you can typically eat:

  1. Meat: boiled beef, white chicken, and turkey meat;
  2. Vegetarian soups made from approved foods;
  3. Vegetable oil: olive, sunflower;
  4. Porridge: rice, buckwheat, oatmeal;
  5. Lactic acid products: you can use cottage cheese, and yogurt without additives;
  6. Pickled cheese (feta cheese);
  7. Vegetables: cucumbers, cabbage, leafy greens, potatoes, green peas;
  8. Fruits: green apples and pears;
  9. Tea without additives;
  10. Dried white bread, unleavened flat cakes.

Keep in mind that the list of permitted foods, like the list of prohibited ones, may differ depending on individual factors, and the ultimate version of the diet should be made by your allergist.

We also recommend you keep a food diary so that you can better understand your body. It will be much more convenient for you to analyze the situation, gradually implement new food and observe your reaction. A food diary will help you when meeting with an allergist, where an experienced doctor can draw appropriate conclusions, based on your notes, and prescribe the most effective treatment for you.

A Summary of What to Do:

  1. Read food labels and be aware of cross-contamination.
  2. Learn all you can about food products.
  3. Learn the different names for the food you are allergic to that may appear on food labels. Inspect the list of ingredients on everything you eat. Dressings, sauces, processed deli meats, soup broth, and even frosting can have unexpected allergens in them.
  4. Talk to your family members about getting foods you're allergic to out of your home so there's no risk of cross-contamination.
  5. Avoid foods you didn't make yourself if you're not sure of the ingredients.
  6. Carry a personalized "chef card." This card describes your allergies and helps kitchen staff understand how to prepare a safe meal for you. If the manager or owner of a restaurant seems uncomfortable about your request for safe food preparation, avoid eating there.
  7. When eating at restaurants, avoid fried foods. Many places cook multiple foods in the same oil.
  8. Don't eat at buffets or salad bars. They can be risky because people can move serving spoons and other utensils from one food to another.
  9. Be careful in bakeries, ice cream parlors, or candy shops. The risk of cross-contamination from shared scoops or machinery is high.
  10. Watch out for non-food items where foods may be a hidden ingredient — such as bird food, pet food, mouse or ant traps, nutritional supplements, and cosmetics.
  11. If your doctor prescribes epinephrine, always carry it with you. Keep your prescription up to date.

Knowing these tips can help you reduce food allergies. Your health and wellbeing come first!

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Change I want to make1yreply to**It's time to …

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It is important to prioritize self-care and self-love. Putting yourself first means taking the time and effort to take care of your physical, emotional, and mental well-being. This can include setting boundaries, saying no to things that do not align with your values, and making time for activities that bring you joy. Believing that you deserve to take care of yourself is also important. It is not selfish to prioritize your own needs and well-being. Remember that when you take care of yourself, you are better able to take care of others and contribute positively to the world around you.

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Asking the universe for a sign can be done through meditation, prayer, or simply stating your intention out loud or in writing. It is important to be specific about what you are asking for and to trust that the universe will provide the sign you are seeking. It is also important to be open to receiving the sign, as it may not come in the form you expect. Trust in the universe and have faith that it will guide you on your journey.


How to Ask the Universe for a Sign

Choose a time and place when you feel safe, comfortable, and undistracted. If it feels right, you can close your eyes. Take a deep breath. You might choose to put your hand on your heart or to extend your hands in front of you with your palms facing the sky. Again, this is all about what feels best for

You can ask for a specific sign, such as this:

"Dear Universe, if I'm on the right path, please send me a white feather sometime in the next 24 hours."


"Dear Universe, if I'm meant to take the job, please send me a seashell in the next 24 hours."

For a more general sign, you might say:

"Dear Universe, please send me a clear, loving sign of alignment that I'm on the right path."


"Dear Universe, please send a gentle, clear, loving sign in the next 24 hours that I'm meant to accept the job offer."

After you've asked, allow whatever comes forth to be, exactly as it is. Trust that whether or not you get your sign, it'll be okay. You are on the right path. The Universe is supporting you in every way possible.




At the end of the day, if someone wants to be in your life, they will be.

Truly - they are capable, they will make the effort, they will show up. If they do not - let that be your closure.

However, you do not have to hate them. You do not have to remember their contribution to your life as anything but beautiful. Do not ruin them in your mind, do not grip until you feel resentment. Instead, love them without attachment. Love the lessons they taught you. Wish them well every single time you think about them. Miss them, but do not ache for them to come back. If the people in your life left because they were not ready to value you, or love you, or be there for you, do not wish for them back, do not ask for them to be more than they can be at the moment. Wish for them to figure themselves out. Wish for them to grow. They are on their own journey - a journey you are not a part of. And that is okay. You have to learn that that is okay.

So instead of focusing on the people who left, focus on the people in your life who have chosen to be there. Focus on the ones who stayed, on the ones who appreciate you and respect you. Focus on the people who match the love you give them, focus on the people who empower you and grow you and make your life beautiful. You are surrounded by human beings who will not shy away from the love you give. You are surrounded by human beings who know that they want you in their life, people who show you that every single day. Do not take them for granted. Do not lose touch of what you have, chasing what you no longer do.

Trust me when I say you will miss out on beautiful things if you continue to stay rooted in all of the ways you were wronged if you continue to let your past pull you from experiencing what the present has to offer you. Do not close yourself off to your potential. Instead, open yourself to the world, and allow for it to fill that space with the kinds of people, the kinds of moments, and the kinds of experiences that exhilarate you, that compel you that make you love yourself, and your life, and what you have to offer, more and more each day.



You're here for a reason

I need you to understand that you are here for a reason. And I know that sometimes it doesn't feel that way. I know that sometimes life can be a difficult thing to navigate, it can break you down and challenge you in ways you never thought it would.

But I also know that you have the potential to do incredible things in this world. I also know that you have the capacity to overcome whatever it is that is hurting you, or confusing you, or making you doubt yourself. Please, I need you to believe in that. I need you to believe, with reckless abandon, that you are meant to be here. I need you to trust in yourself - even if you haven't figured out what inspires you deeply, even if you haven't discovered your purpose, even if you're moving forward in the simplest, smallest of ways. Just keep going. Wake up each morning, and be gentle with yourself. Do the work. Feel whatever it is that you need to feel. Tuck beautiful memories into your chest for safekeeping, revisit them whenever things get too tough.

Remind yourself of the art you want to create, of the humans you have yet to meet, of the places you have yet to see. No matter what, just continue to remind yourself that you are going to make it, that you are going to heal, that above all else you are going to survive.



It's time to start putting yourself first and believing you deserve it.

Isn't it exhausting to always calculate your actions based on other people's opinions of you? Isn't it exhausting to always put others first while you suffer, just to please them or to show them that you care?

Doing what feels good to you doesn't mean you lack love for others around you. It simply means you also love yourself just as much. Learn how to invest in you and pursue all the things that make you happy and fulfilled. Even if it's just taking yourself on a two-day trip or saying NO to going out with friends because you prefer a quiet night at home or working less and taking some time off for your mental health.

Remember that you're just as important as those you love.



I hope you start to believe that you are worthy of everything you want in this life, and that you are not asking for too much.

I know how difficult that can be at times because no one comes out of this life unscathed - we have all been weathered by this world in ways we did not deserve, in ways that have stuck. We have all been dug into, we have all experienced things that have darkened our hope.

I am sorry you had to experience things that wore down your strength; that you had to go through certain losses that carved into you lessons you were too young to learn, lessons that were too heavy to hold. I am sorry that somewhere along your journey, society convinced you that you were not full of purpose, that you had to want less, or settle for things outside of what you had always dared to hope for. I am sorry that at times the world made you feel like you didn't hold space within it, that you didn't deserve to be here, or to be loved, or to be the kind of human being who achieves profound and beautiful things. I am sorry that you had to endure things at the hands of love that made you stop believing in its goodness, that made you stop believing in just how possible it was for you to find something real, and pointed, and full in depth in this generation. I am sorry that somewhere along your journey, you were convinced that you could not dream the way you wanted to dream, that you could not strive to experience all of the beauty this life has to offer.

And I know that sometimes because of all that you have been through, you doubt the part of yourself that knows there is more out there for you. But you have to trust it.


I cannot tell you what the future will look like, but I can tell you that as long as you are breathing you belong in this world. And because you belong in this world, there will be places within it that welcome you.

Perhaps it might not be with the group or position you thought you would be in, but it will be just for you. Maybe you have longed to be a part of a community, but you actually feel called to start one yourself. Perhaps you don't feel like you belong in your family, but you were meant to be family to someone else. This does not mean that you have to leave every relationship behind and that there is no room for things to be healed in time, but it does mean that you are not limited to feeling that you don't belong.

Even if you are landlocked, and you can't travel the way you want to. Even if you don't feel like you don't have the personality to keep up with others, the more you begin to choose to bravely keep your eyes open, the more you will begin to see: all around you, there are places for you to belong, and help others belong, too.



Trying to achieve something that's literally unattainable will only result in you feeling "less than".

When you are judgemental, you are only focusing on the negative qualities in yourself and others.

Self-doubt is a weed that will take over your life if you don't kill it at the root.

If you never think things will be better, they won't be. This removes hope.

Worrying changes nothing except your health and mental state.

When you focus on the negative things, you are really setting yourself up for never being content or happy.

You can't control everything and when you try and inevitably fail, you will only blame yourself.


Seven things most people take a lifetime to learn

• Feeling sad after making a decision doesn't mean it was
the wrong decision.

• Life is not tiring. Wanting life to be a certain way but not having the confidence to make it that way, is tiring.

• Self-awareness is realizing that there is no opponent - you're fighting against yourself.

• Sometimes saying 'goodbye' doesn't mean you don't love something, it just means you love yourself too.

• That lesson will repeat itself until you learn it.

• If you keep one hand on your past and one hand on your future you'll never have either. To embrace tomorrow, you must let go of yesterday.

• The world starts and ends entirely inside your mind. No matter where you end up, no matter how rich, or successful you become, you won't enjoy any of it if you get there at the expense of your mental health.


Small tips to help you when life gets tough!

  1. Don't pay too much attention to the way you feel. Feelings change throughout the day and are unreliable. Don't let them rule your life, or interfere with your goals.

  2. Decide not to worry as it tends to make things worse. If you focus on your worries it will drain your energy - and often what we're dreading doesn't happen anyway.

  3. Cut the internal commentary. Stop telling yourself that things are going to fall apart, or your efforts won't succeed, or you won't be popular. Keep trying, moving forwards, and getting on with life.

  4. Stop being self-critical. You need to be your own cheerleader and your biggest fan in life. Note progress, perseverance, attitude and inner strength. Be affirming, kind, believing and coach towards success.

  5. Stop feeling guilty. Feeling guilty changes nothing. You are going to make mistakes. Accept you aren't perfect - then get up and try again.


"Doing your best" means "doing what you can without harming your mental and physical health" not "doing something with no regards for your own limits."



Mental toughness is often portrayed as determination and persistence, but it can also be flexibility and adaptability.

  • I can be happy anywhere.

  • I can work with what I have.

  • I can have a good day with anyone.

You are tough when your mood is not dependent on your conditions.



Overcoming Fear

  1. Increase your awareness. The first thing to do is to recognize how much they're interfering with your daily life, and holding you back from being happy and free.

  2. Try to be specific. What is it that worries you about the situation? What is the one thing that terrifies you most?

  3. What do you need? Reassurance, support, or a friend by your side? Or perhaps you need to learn and acquire new skills? Once you know what you need you can seek out that help.

  4. Try journaling. Writing down your different fears can be a source of release - so you don't feel so powerless, or trapped and overwhelmed. Also, writing things down often helps clear our minds, so our thinking's more rational and less emotional.

  5. Talk to someone. It's often very damaging to bottle things inside. So try and find a friend who you know will understand. Also, it's hard to keep fighting when you feel you're alone.

  6. Arrange to work with a counselor. A counselor is trained to help you uncover the roots, and to teach you the skills that you need to cope with fear.

  7. Do it afraid. By choosing to take action and face your different fears you will undermine their power, and the hold they have on you.

  8. Flip the fear around. When your mind is assaulted by a sense of fear and dread - turn the situation around and imagine things going well ... Then, think of how you'll feel if you don't give in to fear.

  9. Look for a role model. We know that there are others who also live with fear - yet they refuse to give in, and they choose to push through fear. Watch and learn from their example - and do the same things, too.

  10. Normalise failure. None of us is perfect, or always confident. We all make mistakes, and we all get it wrong. But trying leads to progress and change over time. Understand you're on a journey; be patient with yourself.


How to Feel More Contented with your Life

1. Take a moment to be grateful for something.

What in your life is good, or makes you happy? Even if everything seems to suck, there must be at least one good thing. Find something, and begin by being grateful for that.

2. Catch yourself thinking, “This sucks."

It's amazing how often people think this thought. It might be in different words, but if you catch yourself going down that road, stop and try and reverse the thinking. Find a way to see something good or beneficial in the crummy situation.

3. Find the little things that bring you joy.

Find the simple things that make you happy, and focus on those rather than on what is wrong, or what you don't have.

4. Identify things about yourself that you're actually happy with.

We tend to criticize and put ourselves down. Try and break that habit by asking yourself, "What do I do right? What am I good at? Make a list, and keep adding to every day. Then, start to focus on those things rather than on the negatives.

5. Use the same approach with others in your life.

Instead of attacking them, or focusing on their flaws and shortcomings, ask yourself, "What is good about this person? What do I like about them?"


How to express tenderness towards yourself:

• treat mundane activities like grocery shopping as adventures
• make playlists for every feeling you can feel
• give yourself quiet days to read and pass time slowly
• keep a journal, a non-performative place to express yourself
• reduce your screen time; use your screens mostly for inspiration
• create more than you consume
• have a place where you can run free and feel the wind rushing
• do things that make you happy even if they seem childish


no matter what happens, you'll grow and change as a person. every obstacle, every rejection, and failure puts you in the position to learn from it - whether by improving certain aspects of your work ethic, discipline, and priorities or by realizing that some paths were simply not meant for you. fear of failure will hold you back so much and will close so many doors for you that failure itself never could.



  1. Write 3 things you like about your appearance

  2. What is your favorite thing about your personality?

  3. What do you think your biggest weakness is? How can you work on improving this?

  4. Who are you most grateful for having in your life?

  5. Is there something you keep ruminating about that happened a long time ago?

  6. How would your best friend describe you?

  7. I am happiest when...

  8. What have you achieved that you are proud of?

  9. I feel peaceful when...

  10. What is unique about your personality?

  11. What goals are you working towards?

  12. What are things that you need to stop doing that are making you unhappy?

  13. What is your favorite thing to do to treat yourself?

  14. When do you feel most confident?

  15. What does your family love about you?

  16. What is the last charitable thing you have done? If it was a long time ago, start now!

  17. What parts of your life are you happy with?

  18. How would your life change if you were confident?

  19. Why do you think self-worth is important?

  20. What is something you need to forgive yourself for?

  21. What was the happiest time of your life? Why?

  22. What traits do you admire in someone?

  23. What parts of your life would you like to work on?

  24. When was the last time you were kind to a stranger?

  25. What habit do you need to stop?

  26. What habit do you want to start for self-love?



It eventually gets better, without any sort of explanation; one day you just realize that you're no longer upset. You're no longer mad, hurt, or bothered by the things that took so much of your energy and thoughts.

You will find yourself in a peaceful place and enjoy that feeling.


How To Prioritize Your Own Mental Health