The Connor Davidson + Brief Resilience Scales
The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale was created by two scientists – Kathryn M. Conner and Jonathan R.T. Davidson.
Connor is a psychiatrist and a researcher at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina. Her study is concentrated on stress, anxiety, social anxiety, medications, and resilience.
Davidson is a Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science at Duke University. His research is focused on PTSD, as well as many other psychiatric problems.
Both Connor and Davidson started creating this scale as an outcome of working with PTSD patients in their clinical practice.
Connor and Davidson created the scale because there weren’t many resilience scales available at the time when it came to treating their patients.
What is the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale? (CD-RISC)
The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale is a test that measures resilience or how well one is equipped to bounce back after stressful events, tragedy, or trauma.
Resilience gives us the ability to thrive in the face of adversity. Those who are resilient can better move through the traumas of life.
The Connor Davidson Resilience Scale measures several parts of resilience:
- The ability to adapt to change.
- The ability to deal with what comes along.
- The ability to cope with stress.
- The ability to stay focused and think clearly.
- The ability to not get discouraged in the face of failure.
- The ability to handle unpleasant feelings such as anger, pain or sadness.
What Versions are There? (10 + 25 Item)
The CD-RISC-2, CD-RISC-10, and CD-RISC-25 are the only versions of the scale authorized for use.
There are many unauthorized versions, made without permission and in violation of copyright.
The CD-RISC-2 is a two items scale of the longer CD-RISC. This short scale is useful as a short assessment of resilience or for measuring progress after treatment. (Vaishnavi, Connor & Davidson (2007).
According to Vaishnavi, Connor & Davidson (2007), the CD-RISC-2 demonstrates test-retest reliability, adequate internal consistency, convergent validity, as well as divergent validity.
As part of the research conducted by Vaishnavi, Connor & Davidson (2007), two items from the original scale were used:
I am able to adapt when changes occur. I tend to bounce back after illness, injury or other hardships.
The originators of the scale chose these two items as etymologically capturing the true essence of resilience, or the ability to bounce back and successfully adapt to change.
The 10-item scale is comprised of ten of the original 25 items from the CD-RISC-10 scale. Total points possible range from 0-40.
The questions on the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale include:
I am able to adapt when changes occur. I can deal with whatever comes my way. I try to see the humorous side of things when I am faced with problems. Having to cope with stress can make me stronger. I tend to bounce back after illness, injury or other hardships. I believe I can achieve my goals, even if there are obstacles. Under pressure, I stay focused and think clearly. I am not easily discouraged by failure. I think of myself as a strong person when dealing with life’s challenges and difficulties. I am able to handle unpleasant or painful feelings like sadness, fear, and anger.
This 10-item scale was created by Dr’s Campbell-Sills and Stein, at the University of California, San Diego, based on factor analysis.
Possible responses range from:
0 – Not true at all.
1 – Rarely true.
2 – Sometimes true.
3 – Often true.
4 – True nearly all the time.
According to Gandubert, Ritchie, Soulier, Ancelin, and Chaudieu (2012), the CD-RISC was initially thought to be multidimensional, with factors comparable to:
Tenacity and competence. Trusting in one’s instincts and tolerating negative affect. Accepting of change and secure within relationships. Control. Spirituality.
However, in subsequent studies utilizing independent samples, some instability was revealed in the factor structure. This lead to the recognition of an abridged 10-item version, the CD-RISC-10.
The last ten items were considered to be a better reflection of the ability to bounce back from the variety of challenges that can happen in life.
This unidimensional version has equally excellent psychometric properties, and the longer version is applicable for different cultures and is quite adapted to extensive epidemiological studies.
The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-25) is a self-administered scale containing 25 items that exhibit good psychometric properties.
The questions on the 25-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale include:
I am able to adapt when changes occur. I have one close and secure relationship. Sometimes fate or God helps me. I can deal with whatever comes my way. Past successes give me confidence. I try to see the humorous side of things when I am faced with problems. Having to cope with stress can make me stronger. I tend to bounce back after illness, injury or other hardships. I believe most things happen for a reason. I make my best effort, no matter what. I believe I can achieve my goals, even if there are obstacles. Even when hopeless, I do not give up. In times of stress, I know where to find help. Under pressure, I stay focused and think clearly. I prefer to take the lead in problem-solving. I am not easily discouraged by failure. I think of myself as a strong person when dealing with life’s challenges and difficulties. I make unpopular or difficult decisions. I am able to handle unpleasant or painful feelings like sadness, fear, and anger. I have to act on a hunch. I have a strong sense of purpose in life. I feel like I am in control. I like challenges. I work to attain goals. I take pride in my achievements.
The CD-RISC-25 scale was taken from Van der Walt, Suliman, Martin & Lammers, Seedat, (2014).
How Does Scoring Work?
According to Gandubert, Ritchie, Soulier, Ancelin, and Chaudieu (2012), the original 25-item scale was developed to measure resilience, with higher scores being an indicator of high resilience.
Each item on the scale is rated on a 5-point range of responses from not true at all or zero to true nearly all of the time or four.
The total possible scores range from 0–100.
A Look at the Reliability and Validity of the CD-RISC
A study done by Gonzalez, Moore, Newton & Galli, (2015) looked into the validity and reliability of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale in terms of competitive sport.
The research had three main aims:
To study the structure and fit of the original 25-item CD-RISC, as a five-factor scale and a unidimensional scale, as well as the 10-item scale. Study any gender invariances. Study the validity of the best fitting scale.
The ten-item scale was psychometrically superior when compared to the unidimensional 25-item scale as well as the five-factor 25-item scale. This conclusion was derived from confirmatory factor and item-level analyses. (Gonzalez, Moore, Newton & Galli, 2015)
The ten-item scale also exhibited measurement invariance for gender, with significant configural, strong, as well as weak analyses.
Using structural equation modeling, the ten-item scale correlated positively and moderately with positive affect. The scale was inversely related to performance anxiety and negative affect, establishing convergent and divergent validity. (Gonzalez, Moore, Newton & Galli, 2015)
In a study done measuring resilience in adult women using the 10-item scale, the CD-RISC-10 demonstrated high internal consistency. (Gandubert, Ritchie, Soulier, Ancelin and Chaudieu, 2012).
A preliminary study of its psychometric properties in the general population and patient samples demonstrated adequate internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent and divergent validity. (Gandubert, Ritchie, Soulier, Ancelin, and Chaudieu (2012)